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INDIA AND USA FOREIGN POLICY

Tuesday, October 30, 2012



IN THIS POST I LIST ALL MY EDITS IN WIKIPEDIA WITH HISTORY LINKS.THE LINK WHICH WAS BEFORE MY EDIT AND LINK IN WHICH I EDITED ALONG WITH ENTIRE PAGE THAT I MADE INCLUDING WHAT WAS LISTED BEFORE.

Total Removal of all content added on Wikipedia -all referenced.

The articles I modified were devoid of content and it shows your mean mentality to sabotage my work.Clearly everywhere I have mentioned the references from where I have taken and lack of time plus authentic sites made me borrow some material.But you have removed my entire work which shows how low a person can stoop and misuse his authority .It is total malafide intentions on your part as you have removed each and every of my edit as though it is a personal affront to you.You can remove material which is unknown or not authenticated or referenced but not work which is properly sourced on articles which has no content.It is total prejudicial on your part and malafide. So I an restoring all my work .Let me also tell you that the content I have added relates to the crime I am working against.Also that it would be better if Wikipedia starts writing names and addresses of contributors and administrators ,so that evil intentions like yours on administration panel with such a ridiculous name can be shown to the world especially if the content is part of a repository of facts meant for bringing a highly criminal case involving waging of war against the Indian Union to the Supreme Court of India.Mamtapolicedhody (talk) 12:13, 28 October 2012 (UTC) See I have added to content which is not mine as well as external links "Cite your sources: " ; as there is provision for same in Wikipedia.There is only one question for you "Who are you to remove each and every edit of mine?Mamtapolicedhody (talk) 12:30, 28 October 2012 (UTC)
(cur | prev) 03:56, 28 October 2012‎ CommonsDelinker (talk | contribs)‎ m . . (18,190 bytes) (-44)‎ . . (Removing "Dr._Wen_Ho_Lee_-_born_December_21,_1939.jpg", it has been deleted from Commons by INeverCry because: Copyright violation: Copyrighted book cover.) (undo)

Dr. Wen Ho Lee (Chinese李文和pinyinLǐ Wénhé; born December 21, 1939) is a Taiwan-born American scientist who worked for the University of California at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. He created simulations of nuclear explosions for the purposes of scientific inquiry, as well as for improving the safety and reliability of the US nuclear arsenal. A federal grand jury indicted him of stealing secrets about U.S. nuclear arsenal for the People's Republic of China (PRC) in December 1999.[1] After federal investigators were unable to prove these initial accusations, the government conducted a separate investigation and was ultimately only able to charge Lee with improper handling of restricted data, one of the original 59 indictment counts, to which he pleaded guilty as part of a plea settlement. In June 2006, Lee received $1.6 million from the federal government and five media organizations as part of a settlement of a civil suit he had filed against them for leaking his name to the press before any formal charges had been filed against him.[2] Federal judge James A. Parker eventually apologized to Lee for denying him bail and putting him in solitary confinement, and excoriated the government for misconduct and misrepresentations to the court

Early life

Lee was born in 1939 in Nantou, Taiwan. He graduated from Keelung High School in the northern part of the island in 1959, after which he attended National Cheng Kung University in Tainan, Taiwan, where he graduated with a bachelor's of science in mechanical engineering in 1963.[4] In My Country Versus Me, he describes life as being harsh.[citation needed] His father died when Lee was very young. His mother suffered from asthma and eventually committed suicide so that she would not 'burden' the family. He was a young boy in Taiwan when Chiang Kai-shek's forces put down a communist-instigated insurgency. Taiwan was placed under martial law; his brother died when he was a conscript and his commanding officers allegedly wouldn't allow him to take medicine. Lee, however, overcame these odds. He had what he describes as a wonderful teacher in the 6th grade who encouraged his intellectual abilities. Eventually he made his way to university, where he became interested in fluid dynamics.

Graduate education and career

Lee came to the United States in 1965 to continue his studies in mechanical engineering at Texas A&M University. He received his doctorate in 1969 and became a U.S. citizen in 1974.[4] He was employed at industrial and government research firms before he moved to New Mexico in 1978. He worked as a scientist in weapons design at Los Alamos National Laboratory in applied mathematics and fluid dynamics from that year until 1999. He created simulation programs for nuclear explosions, which were used to gain scientific understanding and help maintain the safety and reliability of the US nuclear weapons arsenal.

Government investigation

Lee was publicly named by United States Department of Energy officials, including then-Secretary of Energy Bill Richardson, as a suspect in the theft of classified nuclear-related documents from Los Alamos.[5] Richardson was criticized by the Senate for his handling of the espionage inquiry by not testifying in front of Congress sooner. Richardson justified his response by saying that he was waiting to uncover more information before speaking to Congress.[6]
On December 10, 1999, Lee was arrested, indicted on 59 counts, and jailed in solitary confinement without bail for 278 days until September 13, 2000, when he accepted a plea bargain from the federal government. Lee was released on time served after the government's case against him could not be proven.[5] He was ultimately charged with only one count of mishandling sensitive documents that did not require pre-trial solitary confinement, while the other 58 counts were dropped.
President Bill Clinton issued a public apology to Lee over his treatment by the federal government during the investigation.[5] Lee filed a lawsuit to gain the names of public officials who had leaked his name to journalists before charges had been filed against him.[5] It raised issues similar to those in the Valerie Plame affair, of whether journalists should have to reveal their anonymous sources in a court of law.[5] Lee's lawsuit was settled by the federal government in 2006 just before the Supreme Court was set to decide whether to hear the case.[5] The federal judge who heard the case during an earlier appeal said that "top decision makers in the executive branch" "have embarrassed our entire nation and each of us who is a citizen."[5]

Operation Kindred Spirit

After an intelligence agent from the PRC gave U.S. agents papers which indicated that they knew the design of a particularly modern U.S. warhead, the FBI started an investigation codenamed Operation Kindred Spirit to look into how China could have obtained that design. The investigation eventually fixated on Wen Ho Lee to a degree that was later widely criticized.
In 1982, Lee was recorded on a wiretap speaking with another Taiwanese-American scientist who had been accused of espionage. Lee offered to the scientist to find out who had turned him in. When confronted by the FBI about this incident, Lee said he did not know the scientist, until the FBI demonstrated proof of the conversation. Despite some evidence that could have kept the case open, the FBI closed this file on Lee in 1984.[7]
Lee did not get the attention of the FBI again for 12 years until 1998. The FBI had lost the file on Lee from the 1983 and 1984 meetings with him, and had to reconstruct the information. In 1994, a delegation of Chinese scientists visited LANL in an unannounced capacity for a meeting. One of the scientists visiting was Dr. Hu Side, the head of the Chinese Academy of Engineering Physics, essentially the head of China’s nuclear program. He also was credited with the design of the small, W88-like weapon. Yet, despite the visit being unannounced, Lee showed up to the meeting uninvited. Side and Lee clearly knew each other and were friendly. This alarmed LANL officials, which contacted the FBI, who opened up another investigation of Lee. On December 23, 1998, Lee was given a polygraph test by Wackenhut, a DOE contractor. He was not told of the reason why, other than that it involved his latest trip to China to escort his nephew. During the questioning, he admitted that he had, in fact, met with Dr. Hu Side in a hotel room in 1988, and that Side had asked him for classified information, which he refused to discuss. Lee admitted that he failed to report this contact and approach by individuals requesting classified information as required by security regulations. He was told that he passed the test, but was stripped of his Q (classified) clearance to the LANL's classified X Division section. Although he questioned the action against him, Lee followed along, deleting the classified information he held on his computers and moved to the T (unclassified) clearance zone. He was later subjected to three more polygraph tests before being told by the FBI agents that re-evaluation of the test results showed that Lee had failed all of them.
On March 8, 1999, Lee was fired from his job at Los Alamos National Laboratory on accounts of failure to maintain classified information securely. On the same day, Lee's name was leaked to the media, with the New York Times publishing a sensationalist story about his case. However, FBI investigators soon determined that the design data the PRC had obtained could not have come from the Los Alamos Lab, because it related to information that would only have been available to someone like a so-called "downstream" contractor, meaning one involved in the final warhead production process, and this information was only created after the weapon design left the LANL.
Even though this left Wen Ho Lee apparently in the clear, the FBI continued its attempt to find evidence for implicating Lee of committing espionage for the PRC. There were up to 60 agents and more assigned to Lee's case, working to prove that he was a spy. The FBI conducted a search of Lee's house on April 10, seizing any item related to computers or computing, as well as anything that had notations written in Chinese. The FBI and the Department of Energy then decided to conduct a full forensic examination of Lee's office computer. The examination of Lee's computer determined that he had backed up his work files, which were restricted though not classified, onto tapes, and had also transferred these files from a system used for processing classified data onto another, also secure, system designated for unclassified data. After the FBI discovered Lee's transfer, they revoked his badge access and clearance, including his ability to access the data from the unclassified but secure network. Lee then requested from a colleague in another part of Los Alamos that he be allowed to use his computer, at which time he transferred the data to a third unclassified computer network. The government then retroactively redesignated the data Lee had copied, changing it from its former designation of "PARD" (Protect As Restricted Data) which was just above the "Unclassified" designation and contained 99 percent unclassified data, to a new designation of "Secret" (which was treated on a higher security level than PARD), giving them the crime they needed for a formal charge.

Indictment, imprisonment and release

The Department of Justice constructed its case around the only real evidence of malfeasance, the downloading of the restricted information. They ultimately concocted an unusual strategy of trying to prove that, in addition to illegally handling information, Lee was trying to injure the United States by denying it the exclusivity of the nuclear information. Lee was indicted on 53 counts of mishandling information. Janet Reno confirmed on this date with CIA Director George Tenet and Louis Freeh that if the presiding Judge rules that if the government must reveal in open court what specifically was on the tapes, that the prosecution will have to plea out the case or risk jeopardizing state secrets.
Lee spent nine months incarcerated in solitary confinement with limited access to family. His treatment, though consistent with treatment of other prisoners at the Santa Fe facility, became a source of great controversy for the DOJ. In September 2000, Judge James A. Parker ruled that the government had to disclose the information on the tapes. According to Louis Freeh and Janet Reno, they were left with no option but to plea out Lee in order to A) find out where the missing tapes were and B) not risk sensitive government information by bringing it to trial. Lee was freed, and at plea, admitted to having made many copies of the tapes, which also were never located.[8]
Wen Ho Lee pleaded guilty to one felony count of illegal "retention" of "national defense information". In return, the government released him from jail and dropped the other 58 counts against him. Judge James A. Parker apologized to Lee for the unfair manner in which he was held custody by the executive branch, and for being led by the executive branch to order his detention, stating that he was led astray by the executive branch through its Department of Justice, by its FBI, and its United States attorney. He formally denounced the government for abuse of power in its prosecution of its case.[9] Later, President Bill Clinton remarked that he had been "troubled" by the way Lee was treated.

Post-release

In his memoir, My Country Versus Me, Lee charged that his Chinese ethnicity was a primary factor behind his prosecution by the government. As evidence of such racial profiling, he cited cases of several scientists of non-Chinese ancestry who were responsible for similar security transgressions but were able to continue their career. Former FBI Director Louis Freeh categorically denied these charges. After Mr. Lee’s sentencing, investigators at LANL were able to fully examine the evidence against Mr. Lee. This was never done by the FBI and access by LANL personnel was not allowed until the FBI investigation was complete.
Lee was awarded a $1.6 million settlement from the U.S. federal government and several news organizations for privacy violations. He is now retired and lives in Albuquerque, NM with his wife. He has published an applied physics textbook that he started writing while still in prison. He has now started to write a second physics textbook and would like to teach, but no institutions to which he has applied have responded to his requests.[10]

Personal life

Lee is married and has two grown children. In his book, My Country Versus Me, he describes his love of classical music (before 1911, he says, the year Mahler died), literature, poetry, fishing in the mountains of New Mexico, and his dedication to organic gardening.

Plays and films on the incident

The 2001 play The Legacy Codes, by American playwright Cherylene Lee, deals with the Wen Ho Lee case.[11]
The 2007 play Yellow Face by Asian-American playwright David Henry Hwang places this incident in context to a greater number of cases dealing with racial profiling against Asians, particularly the Chinese during the 1980s.
The 2010 short film The Profile,[12] by American film maker Ray Arthur Wang, is inspired by the Wen Ho Lee case.[13]

See also

References

  1. ^ "US of A vs. Wen Ho Lee, Grand Jury indictment"FAS.
  2. ^ Farhi, Paul (June 2, 2006). "U.S., Media Settle With Wen Ho Lee". The Washington Post.
  3. ^ My Country Vs Me
  4. a b "US vs Wen Ho Lee (play)" (PDF). WenHoLee.org. p. 99.
  5. a b c d e f g Mears, Bill (May 22, 2006). "Deal in Wen Ho Lee case may be imminent"CNN. Retrieved 2008-11-07.
  6. ^ Christopher McCaleb, Ian, "Richardson says FBI has determined drives did not leave Los Alamos"CNN, June 21, 2000.
  7. ^ Randy I Bellows (2001-12-10). "ATTORNEY GENERAL'S REVIEW TEAM ON THE HANDLING OF THE LOS ALAMOS NATIONAL LABORATORY INVESTIGATION". fsa.org. Retrieved 2012-04-27.
  8. ^ Committee on the Judiciary (2001-12-10). "Report on the Government's Handling of the Investigation and Prosecution of Dr. Wen Ho Lee". fas.org. Retrieved 2012-04-25.
  9. ^ James A. Parker (2000-09-13). "Full Text of Remarks of Judge James A. Parker". WenHoLee.org. Retrieved 2009-07-27.
  10. ^ "Trapped in a Spy Hunt". Newsweek Magazine. February 16, 2009.
  11. ^ Cherylene Lee (2001). "The Legacy Code". us_asians.tripod.com. Retrieved 2010-11-10.
  12. ^ Wen Ho Lee at the Internet Movie Database
  13. ^ G. Allen Johnson (2010-04-22). "California Independent Film Festival California Independent Film Festival: Wen Ho Lee case inspires filmmaker son of Livermore physicist". San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved 2011-01-02.

Further reading

  • Wen Ho Lee and Helen ZiaMy Country Versus Me: The First-Hand Account by the Los Alamos Scientist Who Was Falsely Accused of Being a Spy (Hyperion, 2003) ISBN 0-7868-8687-0.
  • Dan Stober and Ian Hoffman, A Convenient Spy: Wen Ho Lee and the Politics of Nuclear Espionage (Simon & Schuster, 2002)ISBN 0-7432-2378-0.
  • Notra Trulock, Code Name Kindred Spirit: Inside the Chinese Nuclear Espionage Scandal (Encounter Books, 2002) ISBN 1-893554-51-1.







He was born to Kesari and Anjani on the Chaitra Shukla Purnima (Chaitra Shukla Purnima is the Full Moon Day on the Hindu Calendar Month of Chaitra) that is why, he is known as ‘KESERI NANDAN’ and ‘ANJANEYA’.

As Hindu Mythology says, He was the incarnation of Lord Shiva the God of Destruction, the Third god of Hindu trinity (All this universe is in the glory of God, of Shiva, the God of Love. The heads and faces of men are His own and He is in the hearts of all - Yajur Veda). He is beleived to be 11th Rudra (Shiva) avatar.[16]


A view of Anjaneri village while climbing the top with Healing Lake

Birth place

Multiple places in India are claimed as the birthplace of Hanuman.
  • According to one theory, Hanuman was born on 'Anjaneya Hill', in Hampi,Karnataka.[17] This is located near the Risyamukha mountain on the banks of the Pampa, where Sugreeva and Rama are said to have met in Valmiki Ramayana's Kishkinda Kanda. There is a temple that marks the spot.
  • Anjan, a small village about 18 km away from Gumla, houses "Anjan Dham", which is said to be the birthplace of Hanuman.[18] The name of the village is derived from the name of the goddess Anjani, the mother of Hanuman. Aanjani Guha (cave), 4 km from the village, is believed to be the place where Anjani once lived. Many objects of archaeological importance obtained from this site are now held at the Patna Museum.
  • The Anjaneri mountain, located 7 km from Trimbakeshwar in the Nasik district, is believed to be , as the birthplace of Hanuman.[19]Anjaneri is logically and by sacred Hindu Texts the birthplace of Hanuman due to Hanuman being the Panchmukhi Hanuman held sacred as the 11th Rudra of Shiva.[20]
  • A cave in a hill near Gokarna, one of the oldest temple towns of India, is also said to be the birthplace of Hanuman. This cave has had a Hanuman temple for a long time. Gokarna, situated in west coast of Karnataka, is known for Atma Linga of Shiva, installed by Ganapathi to save it from the hands of Ravana long before Ramayana days.
  • http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Hanuman&oldid=520142803

THIS WAS THE ARTICLE BEFORE I EDITED - SUCH EVIL CRIMINAL JAINS BY CHEATING ON BANKS HAVE FINISHED HINDUISM ARTICLES ON THE WEB-

http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Anjaneri&oldid=520396126



Anjaneri

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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Anjaneri
Anjaneri is located in Maharashtra
Anjaneri
Location of Anjaneri, Maharashtra
Elevation4,200 m (13,780 ft)
Translationअंजनेरी (Marathi)
Location
LocationNashikMaharashtraIndia
RangeTrimbakeshwar
Coordinates19°55′N 73°34′ECoordinates19°55′N 73°34′E
Anjaneri is one of the important fort in the mountain range ofNasik-Trimbakeshwar. Anjaneri is located 20 km away from Nasik by Trimbak Road.

Contents

  [hide

History

Nasik is a paradise for tourists. The city is famous for its pleasant climate and picturesque surrounding. Anjaneri is one of the exquisite attractions of Nasik city, which is also an important fort in the Trimbakeshwar region.Situated at 4264 ft above sea level, Anjaneri is a spiritual place that lies between Nasik and Trimbakeshwar.
Anjaneri is birthplace of God Hanuman. Anjaneri fort is named after God Hanuman's mother 'Anjani'.[1] Anjaneri has major significance for devout and hikers alike. God Hanuman spent his childhood and grew up on the same mountain.
108 Jain caves are found here.

As Hindu Mythology says, He was the incarnation of Lord Shiva the God of Destruction, the Third god of Hindu trinity (All this universe is in the glory of God, of Shiva, the God of Love. The heads and faces of men are His own and He is in the hearts of all - Yajur Veda). He is beleived to be 11th Rudra (Shiva) avatar.[2]

Birthplace Controversy

Anjaneri is logically and by sacred Hindu Texts the birthplace of Hanuman due to Hanuman being the Panchmukhi Hanuman held sacred as the 11th Rudra of Shiva.As Anjaneri is situated very close to the Jyotirlinga of Shiva , having powerful significance of the Trinity , represented by the three faces embodying Lord Brahma, Lord Vishnu & Lord Mahesh(Shiva) at Trimbakeshwar ;it is unquestioningly the birthplace of God Hanuman. Secondly ,only as the 11th Rudra is God Hanuman the embodiment of Shiva ,and this image is Panchmukhi.This form of Hanuman as "Sri Panchamukha Anjaneya Swami" (Anjaneya = "son of Anjani") is more famous in the South and some other parts of the world. Some of the famous places where this form is seen are: Kumbakonam and Thiruvallur, both in Tamil Nadu.
Unlike Dattatreya who was born with three heads, or Ravana with ten heads, Hanuman was indeed born with one head. So where does this concept of a 5-headed Hanuman come from?
It happened during the war between Rama and Ravana's armies in Lanka. As it so happens, two powerful rakshasa brothers Mahiravana and Ahiravana are fighting on the side of Ravana. In some scriptures they are said to be Ravana's sons and are summoned by their father to help him after many of Ravana's warriors and generals are killed.
Mahiravana is the ruler of the Patalpuri (Patala i.e. Hell). Now Mahiravana, being a powerful practitioner of dark arts and magic (known to be a great devotee of Goddess Kali) locates Rama and Laxmana by his magic. Mahiravana disguises himself as King Dasharartha, and gets past Hanuman's fortress who is guarding them. He captures Rama and Laxmana while they are sleeping, drags them down and holds them captive in his palace in Patala.
Mahiravana leaves a trail behind, which goes deep into the bowels of the earth. Searching for them, Hanuman reaches Patala whose gates are guarded by a creature called Makardhwaja. Hanuman subdues him and ties him up before entering Patalpuri to rescue Rama and Lakshmana.
Upon entering Patala, Hanuman discovers the two brothers held captive meant as sacrifice to Goddess Kali, and also that in order to kill Mahiravana, Hanuman must simutaneously extinguish five lamps burning in five different directions. Thus, Lord Hanuman assumes the Panchamukha or five-faced form of:
1. Sri Varaha facing the North.
2. Sri Narasimha facing the South.
3. Sri Garuda facing the West.
4. Sri Hayagriva (a much earlier Avatar of Vishnu) facing the sky.
5. His own (Hanuman) facing the East.
Thus equipped with the five faces, Hanuman blows out the lamps, kills Mahiravana (in some versions, he sacrifices the demon himself to Goddess Kali, thus earning her favor by virtue of which she made Hanuman her doorkeeper - Indeed many temples of the goddess are seen to have a monkey guarding their doorways) and thus rescues Rama and Laxmana.
To this day, Hanuman is invoked in any fight against sorcery, and amulets and charms depicting him are therefore extremely popular among devotees.
Some popular folklore has a different version in which Mahiravana is killed, but that does not explain Hanuman's five faces.[3]

Ways To Reach

The primary way to reach the Anjaneri fort is from Anjaneri village. One should get down at Anjaneri Phata, which is 20 km away from Nasik on the Nasik-Tryambakeshwar road. Anjaneri village is at a walking distance of 10 to 15 minutes from Anjaneri Phata. Two pinnacles called ‘Navara’ and ‘Navari’ can be seen from Anjaneri village. The way to fort goes through Anjaneri village itself. Next to that there are some steps, through which we reach the plateau of Anjaneri. It takes almost one and the half hour to reach this plateau from Anjaneri village.
File:13 A view of Anjaneri village while climbing the top.JPG
A view of Anjaneri village while climbing the top with Healing Lake

Birthplace of God Hanuman

Anjaneri is a scenic village with mythological importance and spectacular history. From Anjaneri village, it takes about one and half hour to reach the plateau of Anjaneri. This path leads to a magnificent trekking adventure through diverse sceneries of Anjaneri Lake, caves, waterfalls, Healing Lake etc.
File:Birth Place of Hanumanji is Anjaneri near Trimbakeshwar Jyotirlinga of God Shiva.jpg
Birth Place of Hanumanji is Anjaneri near Trimbakeshwar Jyotirlinga of God Shiva
Anjaneri Mountain, around 20 km from Nasik, near Trimbakeshwar, is the birthplace of Hindu God Hanuman. A temple dedicated to Anjani, mother of Hanuman is located here. The temple attracts more than 100, 000 devotees during Hanuman Jayanti. The place also attracts large crowd on Tuesdays and Saturdays.The temple is located in the Sahyadri Mountain Ranges and is around 20 km from Nashik. The temple is near Trimbakeshwar.
File:Anjani Mata Temple -Mother of Hanumanji.JPG
The temple of Anjani Mata,Mother of Hanuman on the Plateau
It takes only 10 minutes to reach the temple of Anjani Mata from the plateau. This temple is quite big. You can see two different ways at a certain distance from Anjani Mata temple; one way to the left hand side that takes you to Seeta cave in 10 minutes. There are two rooms in this cave where almost 10 to 12 people can stay comfortably. There are many beautiful carvings inside Seeta cave. The other way takes you to Citadel, where you can see one more temple of Lord Hanuman and Anjani Mata. It takes 20 minutes to reach this temple.Anjani Temple is built in stone and is situated 4,200 ft above sea level.The right way ahead of the Anjani Mata temple leads directly to the citadel of Anjaneri fort in 20 mins. Here one more big temple of Anjani Mata can be seen. The overall area of Anjaneri is vast.
The place is surrounded by mountain ranges , forests and green landscapes . “Anjaneri” is derived from the fact that God Hanuman is son of Anjani mata, the wife of Pavan. Anjaneri fort is one of the important forts in Tryambakeshwar range.It is located in the beautiful and hilly terrain of Anjaneri Hills-part of the Sahyadri Range in the state of Maharashtra.The 400 meters drive through the Anjaneri village is bound to remind visitors of the state of most Indian village roads. It is quite patchy with many ups and downs, indicative of the nature of human existence, with its joys and sorrows juxtaposed at most times in our lives. The Hanuman Jayanti fair at Anjaneri Village is famous for jatra (procession) and wrestling. A 10 minutes walk from the temple to the left side takes one to the Sita Cave, another place associated with Ramayan.

Trimbakeshwar Jyotirlinga

A 28 km (18 mile) journey from pilgrim town Nashik takes a tourist to Trimbakeshwar, 10th sacred Jyotirlinga in the Dwadash Jyotirlinga circuit. The place is memorable due to its picturesque hills, roads and cool breeze . This hill station like place lies in the formidable shadow of Brahmagiri hills in the Sahyadri range and it is the source of holy river Godavari. The place is also known for its Simhastha Kumbha Mela, which comes every 12 years as per the Hindu calendar.
File:Trayambakeshwar-jyotirlinga.jpg
Trimbakeshwar which is the 10th sacred Jyotirlinga in the Dwadash Jyotirlinga.
What makes the Trimbakeshwar Jyotirlinga unique is that it has three faces embodying Lord Brahma, Lord Vishnu & Lord Mahesh(Shiva). All other Jyotirlingas have Shiva as the main deity. The temple is known for its appealing architecture and sculpture.
Trimbakeshwar Jyotirlinga is in a small hollow space, which contains a pot of water. Water from the river Godavari constantly pours on the top of linga. The Jyotirlinga is unique as it has three faces embodying Lord Brahma, Lord Vishnu & Lord Mahesh (Shiva).Generally the Jyotirlinga has a silver cover on festive occasions it is adorned with a golden cover of five faces each with a golden crown.[5]
File:Ganga Dwar while climbing Brahmagiri,Gangdwar, Trimbakeshwar..JPG
Brahmagiri hill is the place where the famous River Godavari originates. The source is on the top of the hill. After its emergence from this spot, the river appears first time only half way on the hills. This place is known as Gangadwar. The name Gangadwar (way or passage of Ganga) come from the legendary stories relating to Brahmagiri and Ganga.

Anjaneri's Association to Brahmagiri

Brahmagiri(1298 meters)is to the west of Trimbakeshwar and this fort offers a commanding view of the Jawhar Mokhada region of Thane district.Trimbakeshwar itself is a place of worship because it is one of the 12 Jyotirlingas of God Shiva.
From Trimbakeshwar,through regular steps, Ganga dwar is reached and the Gorakshanath cave which is end of Trimbakeshwar.Now again while climbing down,there is a road going towards Brahmagiri towards right.Following this route one reaches the carved steps in the rocks.The steps are very good even in the recent times.They were blown off by Britishers in 1818 but later on, they were rebuilt somewhere before India gained independence.From the base village,Brahmagiri is around 450 to 500 meters elevated
File:Second and final door of Brahmagiri ..JPG
Brahmagiri (1298 meters) It is to the west of Trimbakeshwar and this fort offers commanding view of the Jawhar Mokhada region of Thane district.Trimbakeshwar itself is a place of worship because it is one of the 12 Jyotirlingas.Famous for 108 Swayambhu Mahadev caves.Gautam rishi did his tapasya(penance) here to bring river Godavari on earth.
From base village,it takes 45 minutes to see Ganga dwar,the Gorakshanath caves and 108 Swayambhu Mahadev caves and in the halfway while descending,the road towards Brahmagiri takes you till the top in around 45 minutes and almost 2 hours to see the fort completely.There are 2 temples on this fort the place which is believed to be the origin point of Godavari river.From here,the river flows till Ganga dwar and then towards Kushavart teerth in Trimbakeshwar village.
One can reach this place by an ascent of about 750 steps made on concrete. There is a shrine dedicated to Goddess Ganga. The river appears here as coming out from the mouth of Nandi. Kolambika Devi temple and a group of 108 shivalings are seen nearby.

External Links

References







File:Padma Vibhushan, PVSM, MVC (Bar), AVSM COAS, Armoured Corps, Deccan Horse -13th Chief of Army Staff.jpg
13th Chief of Army Staff (CoAS) of the Indian Army.
Born27 January 1926
Alibag
Died10 August 1986
Pune
Allegiance India
Service/branchIndian Army
Years of service1945 to 31 January 1986
RankGeneral

Arun Shridhar Vaidya

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

General Arun Shridhar Vaidya
File:Padma Vibhushan, PVSM, MVC (Bar), AVSM COAS, Armoured Corps, Deccan Horse -13th Chief of Army Staff.jpg
13th Chief of Army Staff (CoAS) of the Indian Army.
Born27 January 1926
Alibag
Died10 August 1986
Pune
Allegiance India
Service/branchIndian Army
Years of service1945 to 31 January 1986
RankGeneral


General Arun Shridhar VaidyaMVC(Bar), AVSM (27 January 1926 Alibag– 10 August 1986 Pune) was the 13th Chief of Army Staff (CoAS) of the Indian Army.An outstanding military leader, General Vaidya gave the Indian Army a very sound leadership and brought with him an aura of gallantry, valour and remarkable reservoir of combat experience befitting the head of the army. He had the distinction of being among the most decorated soldiers in the defence services.

Contents

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Career

Lieutenant Colonel

In 1965, the then Lieutenant Colonel Vaidya was in command of the Deccan Horse. During the time he was instrumental in saving the Command Trucks and fleeing Divisional Headquarters through his tanks through an encirclement by Pakistan Army's 6th Armoured Division at the Battle of Chawinda which resulted in destruction of Pakistan's 1st Armoured Division and heavy loss of Pakistani lives. For this he was awarded the Maha Vir Chakra.

Brigadier

During the 1971 Indo-Pak conflict, the then Brigadier Vaidya was commander of an armored brigade in the Zafarwal sector on the western front. In the battle of Chakra and Dahira, the hostile terrain was combined with minefields. He crossed through the minefield and moved forward. Thus the entire squadron was able to push through the lane and quickly deploy itself to meet the Pakistan Army's counter-attacks.
During the Battle of Basantar or Battle of Barapind in the same conflict, Brigadier Vaidya displayed skill and leadership in getting his tanks through deep minefields. For this he was awarded a second Maha Vir Chakra (known as the Bar to MVC).

Major General

Elevated to the rank of Major General in 1973, he held the appointments of Director Military Operations, Chief of Staff at Headquarters Southern Command and as Commandant Armoured Corps Centre & School. Promoted to the rank of Lieutenant General in January 1980, he held the appointment of Master General of Ordnance and later as the General Officer Commanding of a Corps before being elevated to the appointment of General Officer Commanding-in-Chief of Eastern Command in June 1981. His tackling of the insurgency problems in his command has been particularly praiseworthy. He was awarded the Param Vishisht Seva Medal (PVSM) in 1983 for distinguished service of the most exceptional order.

General (CoAS)

On 31 July 1983 General Vaidya became the 13th Chief Of Army Staff of the Indian Army . In 1984, he planned Operation Blue Star to kill Sikh terrorist leaders hidden in Golden temple.

Retirement

He retired on 31 January 1986 as India's most decorated soldier.[1] He had completed over 40 years of service.

Operation Blue Star

In 1984, General Vaidya designed and supervised[2] Operation Blue Star - a military operation ordered by Indira Gandhi, then Prime Minister of India,[3] against a terrorist groups of Sikh militants commanded by Shabeg Singh (AVSM and PVSM) under Jarnail Singh Bhindranwale, Chief of Damdami Taksal, in June 1984 at the Golden Temple complex.

Assassination

General Vaidya retired and took residence in PuneIndia. On 10 August 1986 he was shot to death while driving his car home from the market.[4] According to the police, the assailants pulled up next to his car on motor scooters and fired eight or nine shots into the car.[5]Vaidya reportedly died instantly of head and neck wounds. His bodyguard, who was also in the car, was wounded by four bullets in his back and thighs.[6]
According to Indian intelligence sources, Vaidya had been the number four assassination target on lists of Punjab extremists and he was one of several people killed in retaliation for Operation Blue Star.[7][8]
Following the assassination, the Khalistan Commando Force issued a statement declaring that Vaidya had been killed in retaliation for the Golden Temple operation.[7] In 1989, Sukhdev Singh Sukha and Harjinder Singh Jinda were sentenced to death for the killing. Despite admitting to the killing, they pled not-guilty, justifying their actions by stating that Vaidya was "guilty of a serious crime, the punishment for which could only be death".[8] The two were executed on 9 October 1992.[citation needed]

Assassination Details

On the morning of 10th August, 1986, General Vaidya and his wife left their bungalow with the securityman Ramchandra Kshirsagar for shopping in their Maruti Car No. DIB 1437 at about 10.00 a.m. The car was being driven by General Vaidya with his wife sitting in the front seat to his left and the securityman sitting in the rear seat just behind her. After the shopping spree was completed at about 11.30 a.m. and while they were returning to their residence via Rajendrasinghji Road, the car had to take a turn to the right at the square in front of 18 Queens Garden at the intersection of Rajendrasinghji and Abhimanyu roads. To negotiate this turn General Vaidya who was driving the vehicle slowed down. At that point of time a red Ind-Suzuki motor cycle came paralled to the car on the side of General Vaidya and the person occupying the pillion seat of the motor cycle fired three shots from close range at the head of General Vaidya. Before his wife and securityman could realise what had happened, General Vaidya slumped on the shoulder of his wife Bhanumati. The motor cyclists drove away and could not be located. An auto-rickshaw passed by.
As General Vaidya lost control over the vehicle the car surged towards a cyclist Digamber Gaikwad. The latter, in order to save himself, jumped off the cycle. The cycle came under the Maruti Car and as a result the car stopped at a short distance in front of a compound wall. Immediately thereafter the securityman stepped out of the vehicle and went in search of some bigger vehicle to carry General Vaidya to the hospital. A Green Matador Van which was passing by was fetched by the securityman in which the injured General Vaidya was carried to the Command Hospital where he was declared dead.[9]

Awards and recognition

External Links

  • STATE OF MAHARASHTRA versus SUKHDEO SINGH & ANR
Supreme Court Cases 1992 AIR 2100 1992 SCR (3) 480 1992 SCC (3) 700 JT 1992 (4) 73 1992 SCALE (2)9http://www.rishabhdara.com/sc/view.php?case=10635
  • The Deccan Horse
  • Shiromani Akali Dal
  • Master Tara Singh
  • Act Name : THE ARYA MARRIAGE VALIDATION ACT, 1937
Act title : ACT No. 19 OF 1937 Enactment date :[14th April, 1937.] http://indiacode.nic.in/

Summary

Description
English: General AS Vaidya, was commissioned to the Armored Corps in the year 1945 and he witnessed the battle during the 2nd World War. For the braveness that he showed during the Indo-Pakistan war of 1965 as a Commandant, he was awarded by the prestigious Maha Vir Chakra. For his various service of exceptional order, he was awarded the prestigious Param Vishisht Seva Medal in the year 1983. In the same year, he took over the position as the Indian Army Chief and he served in that position till 1985. He was one among the most decorated soldiers of the defence service. He was also regarded as an outstanding military leader.
Assasination:
On the morning of 10th August, 1986, General Vaidya and his wife left their bungalow with the securityman Ramchandra Kshirsagar for shopping in their Maruti Car No. DIB 1437 at about 10.00 a.m. The car was being driven by General Vaidya with his wife sitting in the front seat to his 492 left and the securityman sitting in the rear seat just behind her. After the shopping spree was completed at about 11.30 a.m. and while they were returning to their residence via Rajendrasinghji Road, the car had to take a turn to the right at the square in front of 18 Queens Garden at the intersection of Rajendrasinghji and Abhimanyu roads. To negotiate this turn General Vaidya who was driving the vehicle slowed down. At that point of time a red   Ind-Suzuki motor cycle came paralled to the car on the side of General Vaidya and the person occupying the pillion seat of the motor cycle fired three shots from close range at the head of General Vaidya. Before his wife and securityman could realise what had happened, General Vaidya slumped on the shoulder of his wife Bhanumati. The motor cyclists drove away and could not be located. An auto-rickshaw passed by.
As General Vaidya lost control over the vehicle the car surged towards a cyclist Digamber Gaikwad. The latter, in order to save himself, jumped off the cycle. The cycle came under the Maruti Car and as a result the car stopped at a short distance in front of a compound wall. Immediately thereafter the securityman stepped out of the vehicle and went in search of some bigger vehicle to carry General Vaidya to the hospital. A Green Matador Van which was passing by was fetched by the securityman in which the injured General Vaidya was carried to the Command Hospital where he was declared dead.
Date
27 October 2012, 08:20:09
Source
Own work
Author
The Indian army has a checkered history and some of its regiments are over 200 years old. One of the regiments the Deccan Horse, a cavalry unit is among the oldest regiments of the British Indian army. Formed in 1790 the Deccan Horse covered itself with glory during the wars in the 18th and 19th century. It also took part in the last cavalry charge at the Battle of the Somme in 1916.World War I (1914-18) necessitated the movement of the 20th Deccan Horse to France to stabilize the Western front. The cavalry unit played a significant role during the battle of the Somme in 1916. The 20th Deccan Horse led the attack on 14 July 1916 at Highpoint a German Strong hold that was holding up the Allies. The cavalry charged the German lines going uphill, which greatly reduced their speed, but some of the lancers reached the German lines and cut them up. Many Germans surrendered when confronted by a rushing mass of cavalry in the wood lands. The attack was however a costly affair with 102 men and 130 horses killed. This was the last cavalry charge on a horse as two month later the tank was introduced in battle. The graves of the Commonwealth dead from India at the Authuile Military cemetery and Pas de Calais cemetery entirely carry names of Sikh soldiers.
The Deccan horse was removed from France and relocated to the Middle East where it played a significant part in the defeat of the Turks and capture of Damascus.
The 20th Deccan Horse was awarded the title Royal for their bravery during World War I and renamed the Royal 9th Deccan Horse.
During World War II the Deccan horse was re equipped with tanks and became part of the 255 Indian Tank Brigade. It played a significant role in the battle of Burma (1942-45). It took part in hand to hand fighting with the Japanese army and pushed them out of Burma, securing Rangoon in early 1945. In 1947 India became free and the Deccan Horse became part of the Indian army.

English: General AS Vaidya, was commissioned to the Armored Corps in the year 1945 and he witnessed the battle during the 2nd World War. For the braveness that he showed during the Indo-Pakistan war of 1965 as a Commandant, he was awarded by the prestigious Maha Vir Chakra. For his various service of exceptional order, he was awarded the prestigious Param Vishisht Seva Medal in the year 1983. In the same year, he took over the position as the Indian Army Chief and he served in that position till 1985. He was one among the most decorated soldiers of the defence service. He was also regarded as an outstanding military leader.
Assasination:
On the morning of 10th August, 1986, General Vaidya and his wife left their bungalow with the securityman Ramchandra Kshirsagar for shopping in their Maruti Car No. DIB 1437 at about 10.00 a.m. The car was being driven by General Vaidya with his wife sitting in the front seat to his 492 left and the securityman sitting in the rear seat just behind her. After the shopping spree was completed at about 11.30 a.m. and while they were returning to their residence via Rajendrasinghji Road, the car had to take a turn to the right at the square in front of 18 Queens Garden at the intersection of Rajendrasinghji and Abhimanyu roads. To negotiate this turn General Vaidya who was driving the vehicle slowed down. At that point of time a red Ind-Suzuki motor cycle came paralled to the car on the side of General Vaidya and the person occupying the pillion seat of the motor cycle fired three shots from close range at the head of General Vaidya. Before his wife and securityman could realise what had happened, General Vaidya slumped on the shoulder of his wife Bhanumati. The motor cyclists drove away and could not be located. An auto-rickshaw passed by.
As General Vaidya lost control over the vehicle the car surged towards a cyclist Digamber Gaikwad. The latter, in order to save himself, jumped off the cycle. The cycle came under the Maruti Car and as a result the car stopped at a short distance in front of a compound wall. Immediately thereafter the securityman stepped out of the vehicle and went in search of some bigger vehicle to carry General Vaidya to the hospital. A Green Matador Van which was passing by was fetched by the securityman in which the injured General Vaidya was carried to the Command Hospital where he was declared dead.

The Indian army has a checkered history and some of its regiments are over 200 years old. One of the regiments the Deccan Horse, a cavalry unit is among the oldest regiments of the British Indian army. Formed in 1790 the Deccan Horse covered itself with glory during the wars in the 18th and 19th century. It also took part in the last cavalry charge at the Battle of the Somme in 1916.World War I (1914-18) necessitated the movement of the 20th Deccan Horse to France to stabilize the Western front. The cavalry unit played a significant role during the battle of the Somme in 1916. The 20th Deccan Horse led the attack on 14 July 1916 at Highpoint a German Strong hold that was holding up the Allies. The cavalry charged the German lines going uphill, which greatly reduced their speed, but some of the lancers reached the German lines and cut them up. Many Germans surrendered when confronted by a rushing mass of cavalry in the wood lands. The attack was however a costly affair with 102 men and 130 horses killed. This was the last cavalry charge on a horse as two month later the tank was introduced in battle. The graves of the Commonwealth dead from India at the Authuile Military cemetery and Pas de Calais cemetery entirely carry names of Sikh soldiers.
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Krishnaswamy_Sundarji&oldid=518752127

MY FATHER SHRI JAGDISH CHANDRA DHODYJI DEVELOPED KATANGA COLONY ON NARMADA ROAD AS MP HOUSING BOARD SOCIETY.PREVIOUSLY IT HAD ONLY BARREN LAND AND MOUNTAINS/HILLOCKS.IT HAD BECOME AN EASY ACCESS TO CRIMINALS RIGHT IN THE POSH AREA WHERE RAJKAPOOR'S WIFE KRISHNA LIVED IN HER CHILDHOOD ,ALONG WITH HER BROTHERS RAJENDRANATH , PREMNATH AND NARENDRANATH WHO WERE ALSO NOTABLE ACTORS IN MUMBAI FILM INDUSTRY.THERE WAS A SMALL TEMPLE OF HANUMANJI IN THE KATANGA HILLOCKS WHIC DEVOUTS USED TO VISIT.FURTHER THE COLONY WAS DEVELOPED FOR THE SOUTH AFRICAN STUDENTS AT LOW COSTS AND HAD THE MAXIMUM STUDENTS LIVING IN IT AFTER ITS COMPLETION.THEY EASILY MERGED WITH THE LOCAL CULTURE AND WERE NEVER A MENACE TO THE HINDUS IN THE COLONY ,LIKE THE NORTH EASTERN STUDENTS OF DELHI .
THE HANUMANJI TEMPLE WAS MADE HUGE AFTER DEVELOPMENT OF COLONY BY MY FATHER'S EFFORTS WITH DONATION FROM HIS INSURANCE CLIENTS.





General Krishnaswamy Sundarji (28 April 1930 – 8 February 1999), was India's Chief of Army staff from February 1, 1986, to April 30, 1988. Widely respected as a scholar warrior, he was regarded as one of the most promising Generals of Independent India. During his army career, he had commanded theOperation Bluestar under orders from Indira Gandhi to attack the Golden Temple shrine. He introduced a number of technology initiatives for the Indian army. He was also questioned for his role in recommending the Bofors Howitzer in the Bofors Scandal.
His formal or official name was Krishnaswamy Sundararajan, but he was popularly known by the informal name of Sundarji.A man of immense wit, charm and style, he was also known as the 'scholar warrior' and a visionary with a brilliant mind.
Krishnaswamy Sundarji
File:General Krishnaswamy Sundarji - PVSM, ADC COAS - 14th Chief of Army Staff..jpg
14th Chief of Army Staff of the Indian Army.
Born28 April 1930
Chengelpet, Tamil Nadu
Died8 February 1999 (aged 68)
Allegiance India
Service/branchIndian Army
Years of serviceApril 1946 to April 30, 1988
RankGeneral
AwardsParam Vishisht Seva Medal
INCLUDING IMAGES I ADDED TO WIKIPEDIA'S DEAD ARTICLE ON ANJANERI ! 























Early life

He was born on 28 April 1930 at Chengelpet in Tamil Nadu, in an Iyengar Brahmin family with a very modern outlook. He joined theMadras Christian College only to leave it before receiving a degree.
Subsequently, he graduated from the Defence Services Staff College (DSSC) at Wellington, Tamil Nadu. He also studied at theCommand and General Staff College at Fort Leavenworth in the US, and the National Defence College in New Delhi. He held an Master of Arts in International Studies from Allahabad University and an M.Sc. in Defence Studies from Madras University.
He had married Padma Sundarji when he was a Major serving with the MAHAR Regiment, an infantry Unit in the Indian Army. Padma spent the best years of her life giving him company throughout his various postings. When he was serving as General Officer Commanding (GOC), XXXIII Corps in Eastern command, she passed away at Army Hospital, Delhi Cantt in 1978, of cancer. He had two children, Pria and Vikram, from this marriage. Later, he married for the second time.

Life as a soldier

Even as a young soldier he proved himself to be a leader, a man of foresight and wisdom. He was commissioned in 1946 into the Mahar Regiment, where his work involved two of the most troublesome areas of North-West Frontier Province and then in Jammu and Kashmir.
In the period following India's independence (and separation from Pakistan), he was involved in action in Kargil, when a host of mercenaries supported by Pakistan invaded Kashmir.
In 1963 he served in the UN mission in the Congo, where he was chief of staff of the Katanga command and was mentioned in dispatches for his gallantry,and gained command over the language Swahili.

Provincial assembly building of Katanga in Lubumbashi
In 1965 he was once again back in action in India, to fight in the Indo-Pak war. The war was a complete misadventure by Pakistan. But it could have gone either way. This might have made Sundarji realize the crucial role, technology could play in winning wars, placed as he was in command of an Infantry battalion.
He played an important role as Brigadier General Staff of corps in the Rangpur sector ofBangladesh, during the 1971 Indo-Pak war. This war led to the liberation of Bangladesh.
During the 1971 Indo-Pak War, General Sundarji was the Brigadier General Staff of a corps in the eastern theatre and made valuable contribution in operations culminating in the liberation of erstwhile East Pakistan into Bangladesh. In March 1974, he was promoted to the rank of Major General and took over command of an infantry division in the plains. He was chosen by General KV Krishna Rao to be part of a small team for reorganizing the Indian Army, especially with regard to technology. He came to head the Mechanised Infantry regiment, which he had himself shaped, by inducting various battalions from the Indian Army's premier regiments. He was then appointed as the Deputy Chief of Army Staff in August 1981, where he threw himself into the Indian Army's modernisation activities.General Sundarji was amongst the most farsighted armoured corps commanders in the Indian Army. Despite being commissioned in the infantry, he was a keen student and admirer of tank warfare. He pioneered various operational guidelines, challenged his commanders to push the men & machines to the limits. In various exercises, he is known to have ordered tanks full speed up sand dunes in the Thar desert at 70º degrees Celsius. Amongst other things, he designed the flamboyant all-black uniform of the Indian Armoured Corps. Post his transformation of the Armoured Corps, he went on to create the Mechanised Infantry. With emphasis on speed, technology and mobile weaponry it is now an integral part of the Indian Army's Strike Corps. He is also credited for shaping modern Indian Army thinking. In his stint as the Commandant of the College of Combat in Mhow, he practically rewrote the Indian Army war manual with emphasis on speed, decisive action, technology and his abiding love - armour. "If there is to be just one thing that Sundarji will always be remembered for," said Admiral K K Nayyar, who served as vice-chief of the navy at the time, "it will be his contribution to updating the army to modern times. He always had a keen interest in ways to improve facilities and equipment for the armed forces." [[1]]: [[2]]
He became a Major General in 1974.For the first time in the history of Indian Army, an Infantry Officer became the General Officer Commanding(GOC)of the elite First Armoured Division. He was chosen by Gen. KV Krishna Rao to be part of a small team for reorganizing the Indian army, especially with regard to technology.[1] .He came to head the Mechanised Infantry Regiment, which he had himself shaped, by inducting various battlaions from Indian army's premier regiments.

The senior general

It was about this time when India had tested its own Nuclear bomb. General Sundarji had long been an advocate of a nuclear policy, and now emerged as an articulate military spokesman for nuclear policy.
In 1984, he led Operation Bluestar, intended to evict Sikh extremists who had occupied the Golden temple in Amritsar. The Indian army marched into the gurudawara with their boots off. He was to later say - "We went inside with humility in our hearts and prayers on our lips". According to his wife, Sundarji emerged a changed man after this operation.[2] This claim is, however, contested by the eyewitness accounts and other historians[citation needed]. As multiple sources speak of dead soldiers lying in the complex with Boots on[citation needed].

That Famous Letter from General K. Sundarji

In 1986, he was appointed the Chief of Army Staff. A few months after taking over as the Army Chief,he wrote a letter to his soldiers warning of deteriorating standards, and the evil of sycophancy.General K Sundarji took time off for a short holiday at Goa. There, reportedly, he soaked in the sun and surf, drank lots of Feni and thought deeply about the STATE OF THE INDIAN ARMY. Various far reaching policy decisions and a letter addressed to each and every Army officer emerged out of that Goan holiday.This letter continues to be extremely relevant even today and I am reproducing it below for the benefit of every Service Officer of India. General K Sundarji, PVSM, ADC Army Headquarters, New Delhi-110 001 1 Feb 86 .

Sundarji defied political leaders in confrontation with Chinese troops

As army chief, his operations at Sumdorong Chu in 1986, known as Operation Falcon, has been widely praised. The Chinese had occupied Sumdorong Chu and Sundarji used the air force's new air-lift capability to land a brigade in Zimithang, north of Tawang. Indian forces took up positions on the Hathung La ridge, across the Namka Chu river, where India had faced a humiliating defeat in 1962. The Chinese responded with a counter-build-up and adopted a belligerent tone. Western diplomats predicted war and some of prime ministerRajiv Gandhi's advisers blamed Sundarji's recklessness. But Sundarji stood by his steps, at one point telling a senior aide, "Please make alternate arrangements if you think you are not getting adequate professional advice." The confrontation petered out.
In the summer of 1986, India learnt "the Chinese had crossed the Thagla Ridge and occupied a feature called Le, built permanent barracks as well as a helipad," former Foreign Secretary Shyam Saran recalled the incident while delivering the second K Subrahmanyam lecture here.
He said he saw this in some way linked to the hardening of the Chinese position on the border and the new insistence on India making concessions in the eastern sector.
The previous year, he recalled, China had begun to signal it was unwilling to legitimise the ceasefire line arrived at after the 1962 war as a border.
"It was also conveyed to us that at a minimum Tawang would have to be transferred to the Chinese side, Saran recalled.
The Chinese were infuriated when Gen Sundarji airlifted troops to the Thagla ridge and made them take positions just 10 meters from a Chinese forward post, he said.
"I recall accompanying Ambassador K P S Menon to lodge a protest with the then Chinese Assistant Foreign Minister and being witness to a most undiplomatic, offensive and vituperative harangue by the latter," recalled Saran, who was then posted in Beijing. "The Chinese were taken completely by surprise as perhaps were our own political leaders," he said.
Saran said while India may not have planned it this way, the Chinese judged the actions through their own prism – that New Delhi had countered their unexpected move by a well – orchestrated counter move. "Subsequently, I am told, that the offensive and overbearing tone adopted by Chinese Foreign Ministry officials also changed to being more polite and civilized," he said.
He said the next several years were spent in the two sides discussing disengagement leading to the end of the confrontation in 1992.
"The lesson to be drawn is not that we should be militarily provocative but that we should have enough capabilities deployed to convince the other side that aggressive moves would invite counter moves," Saran said.
He said strong relations with global powers like the US and Russia are key to how India handles its ties with China in the coming years.
Saran also pitched for a better understanding of how Chinese think and view India and its role in the global order if they are to be engaged constructively in future.
"... How India manages its relations with other major powers, in particular, the US, would also be a factor. My own experience has been that the closer India-US relations are seen to be, the more amenable China has proved to be," Saran said.
"I do not accept the argument that a closer India-US relationship leads China to adopt a more negative and aggressive posture towards India. The same is true of India's relations with countries like Japan, Indonesia and Australia, who have convergent concerns about Chinese dominance of the East Asian theatre," Saran said.
He said the stronger India's links are with these major powers, the more room India would have in its relations with China.
General Krishnaswamy Sundarji was also involved in Operation Brasstacks, a large-scale mechanised artillery and war gaming effort in July 1986 near the Pakistan border, which led to similar Pakistani buildup.Conducted between December 1986 and January 1987, the exercise involved two armoured divisions, one mechanised division and six infantry divisions. The stated objective of Operation Brasstacks was to test new concepts of mechanization, mobility, and air support devised by General Sundarji.The situation was defused through diplomatic talks in February 1987.

IPKF in Srilanka: Operation Pawan

In 1987, the Indian government agreed to a Sri Lankan request and the Indian Peace Keeping Force was sent to Jaffna to disarm theLTTE. However, the Indian army had no experience with the unconventional jungle warfare and faced a high rate of casualties. Among the few successes was the bombing of the LTTE controlled jetties by the Indian Navy Marine commandos (MARCOS) then known as the Indian Navy Special Commando Force.
The IPKF force was withdrawn in 1990.

The Bofors Scandal

In 1986, the Rajiv Gandhi Government struck a $1.3 billion defence deal with A B Bofors of Sweden. Sundarji had recommended this gun, which he felt was as good as the French Sofma, which had been favoured earlier. When news emerged of a 3% payoff in the deal, with possible links going up to the highest levels of government, Sundarji tried to have the deal cancelled.
In 1996, Swiss bank documents were released to the Indian government, revealing that the bribe money had been channelled through several front companies to Ottavio Quattrocchi, an Italian businessman and close personal friend of Rajiv and Sonia Gandhi. The Central Bureau of Investigation asked General Sundarji to testify before the agency on his role in the deal. This is what he had said in an interview at that point. [3]:
  • Question (George Iype): Didn't you tell the Rajiv Gandhi government to scrap the deal when the scandal broke out?
  • Gen. Sundarji: Soon after the corruption charges began pouring in the foreign and Indian media, I immediately rushed to the office of the then Defence Minister Arun Singh and told him: "Let us scrap the deal."... I insisted that the government should terminate the deal with the Swedish firm as by then only six Bofors gun had arrived in India.
  • Q: What did Singh tell you?
  • S: He told me to write my request on a piece of paper and submit it to the Defence Secretary, S. K. Bhatnagar, so that he can take up the matter with the Prime Minister's Office. I did that and waited for days to get an answer from Singh. But one day Bhatnagar came to my office and told me to redraft the note and change my stand.
  • Q: What did you do then?
  • S: I told Bhatnagar that I could not agree to the suggestion. I then called on Arun Singh and asked why the government was insisting that the deal should go through. He told me that the PMO feels that the cancellation of the Bofors contract would jeopardise India's security. By 1987 April, only six Bofors guns had arrived in India. I tried to convince Singh that the Bofors gun would not affect the country's security and defence preparedness.
  • Q: Did Arun Singh agree with you?
  • S: It seemed to me that Singh agreed with my views. But he told me that "the order from above and obedience from below theory" is the order of the government. Singh soon left the Rajiv Gandhi government in disgust.
The Bofors scandal and the (slight) shadow it cast on his reputation of integrity left Sundarji scarred with a severe distaste for politics.

Sundarji as a Thinker

Sundarji was amongst the most far-sighted armoured corps commanders in the Indian Army. Despite being commissioned in the Infantry he was a keen student and admirer of tank warfare. He pioneered various operational guidelines, challenged his commanders to push the machines and men to the limits. In various exercises he is known to have ordered tanks full speed up sand dunes in the Thar desert at 70 degrees. Amongst other things he designed the flamboyant all black uniform of the Armoured corps.
Post his transformation of the armoured corps Sundarji went on to create the Mechanised Infantry. With emphasis on speed, technology and mobile weaponry it is now an integral part of the Indian Strike corps.
Sundarji was amongst the core team that created Indian nuclear policy. As a senior general in the Army along with Admiral Tahiliani, Sundarji wrote the Indian Nuclear doctrine. Post retirement, he was unhappy with the lack of response among politicians regarding nuclear security, and wrote the book Blind Men of Hindustan in 1993.
Sundarji can also be credited for shaping modern Indian army thinking. In his stint as the commandant of the College of combat at Mhow, he practically rewrote the war manual with emphasis on speed, decisive action, technology and his abiding love - armour.
Sundarji was one of the few to predict the total rout of the (soviet trained) Iraqi forces in the first gulf war. Writing for a major Indian magazine - India Today, he was amongst the few who clearly saw what superior air power and technology would do.

Sundarji as a writer

He had other sides to his personality. He had written many articles and even a few books. His "Blind men of Hindustan" discusses nuclear strategy for India and compares India's nuclear policy, with six blind men who misinterpret an Elephant by touching parts of it. He also left behind a partially completed autobiography titled ‘Of Some Consequence: A Soldier Remembers', of which he had completed 33 episodes out of a planned 105.

Death

He was afflicted by an ailment of the nervous system and had been hospitalized during March 1998.
Shortly after Pokhran II, General (retd) Krishnaswami Sundarji had a visitor, a senior member of the team that carried out the Shakti tests. By this time the general was seriously ill, struck by nervous system disease that deprived him of movement and speech. "He knew of the news, of course," says the official, "but when I recounted it, he gripped my hand strongly and then gave me a vigorous thumbs up." Behind the special gesture and the elation lay more than two decades of history in which Sundarji single-mindedly got the tradition-bound Indian Army to think about the consequences of nuclear weapons [[3]] His Combat Papers I and II, published when he was commandant of the college of Combat in Mhow in 1980-81, are considered a classic exposition of the army's thinking on the subject which he was to revisit in his novel Blind Men of Hindoostan -- a suggestively fictional account of his experiences -- in 1993 and in his columns in newspapers and magazines, including India Today.
He finally died on February 8, 1999 at the age of 68. His son, Vikram Sundarji is a well-known author.

External Links

References

  1. ^ General Krishnaswamy Sundararajan Well written biography, uncited, at geocities.com. Accessed Mar 10, 2007.
  2. ^ Tribune.com. Accessed Mar 10, 2007.
  3. ^ Interview with George Iype, rediff.com, Feb 1996
Preceded by
Arun Shridhar Vaidya
Chief of Army Staff
1986–1988
Succeeded by
Vishwa Nath Sharma



Vishwa Nath Sharma

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Vishwa Nath Sharma
File:General Vishwa Nath Sharma, PVSM, AVSM, ADC, 15th Chief of Army Staff of the Indian Army..jpg
General Vishwa Nath Sharma,15th Chief of Army Staff.
NicknameTich
Sunny
BornJune 6, 1930
LondonUnited Kingdom
AllegianceIndia
Service/branchIndian Army
Years of service4th June 1950 - 30th June 1990
RankChief of Army Staff
Battles/warsNagaland Insurgency of 1956
Indo-Pakistani War of 1965
Indo-Pakistani War of 1971
Mizoram Insurgency of 1973
IPKF Operation of 1987
AwardsParam Vishisht Seva Medal
Ati Vishisht Seva Medal
Honorary Army ADC to the President
Other workBoard of directors, Local Advisory Board of India, ABN AMRO, 1991-97
Board of directors, Diamond & Gem Development Corporation, 1993-97
Board of directors, Hawkins Cookers Limited, 2001-present
Member, Institute for Defence Studies and Analyses, 1990-present
Member, United Services Institute of India, 1955-present
Member, National Security Advisory Board, 2006-09
Free Tuberculosis & Medical Center,DadhHimachal Pradesh, 1992-present
General Vishwa Nath SharmaPVSMAVSM, ADC, was the 15th Chief of Army Staff of the Indian Armyand assumed charge of the Indian Army, on 1st of May 1988. He is the son of Major General Amarnath Sharma who retired as the Deputy Director General of Medical Services.He is the younger brother of the late Major Som Nath Sharma, recipient of Independent India's first posthumous Param Vir Chakrathe highest medal for gallantry - on 03 November 1947 for the Battle of Bagdam in Kashmir in October 1947.Both brothers were educated at the Prince of Wales' Royal Indian Military College,Dehradun.
His older brother, Lieutenant General Surindranath Sharma, retired from the Army as Engineer-in-Chief and his younger sister, Kamla Tewary, is a doctor retired from the Army as a Major. Lieutenant General Surindranath Sharma's youngest son, Major Gautam Shavnik, continues the long time family tradition of serving in the Indian Army.
V.N. Sharma went on to join the fifth Regular Course at the Indian Military Academy and he was commissioned on 4 June 1950 into the 16th Light Cavalry.General Vishwanath Sharma was educated at Sherwood College, Nanital and later at the Prince of Wales' Royal Indian Military College at Dehradun. He was the first recipient of the Rajputana Rifles Gold Medal for tactics and leadership.He is a graduate of the Defence Services Staff College (DSSC), Wellington and the National Defence College (NDC), New Delhi.
He fought in the 1965 War against Pakistan in the Lahore Sector.
As a Lieutenant Colonel, he commanded the 66 Armoured Regiment and was later appointed as an instructor at the Defence Services Staff College, Wellington. During the 1971 Indo-Pak War, he served as the Colonel General Staff Operations of an Armoured Division. On promotion to Brigadier, he commanded a mountain brigade in an insurgency affected area and was awarded the Ati Vishisht Seva Medal (AVSM) for distinguished service.
Later he commanded an armoured brigade in the Rajasthan desert was appointed Brigadier General Staff of a Strike Corps in the Western sector. In 1980, he was promoted to Major General and commanded a mountain division in the eastern sector. He then served as Deputy Director, General Military Operations at the Army HQ. He was promoted to Lieutenant General and took over command of a reserve Corps in the western sector in 1984.Awarded theAti Vishisht Seva Medal for distinguished service in March 1986 .He was later appointed Commandant of the prestigious College of Combat at Mhow.General Sharma took over as General Officer Commanding-in-Chief, Eastern Command, on 1 June 1987 and was appointed Honorary Army ADC to the President on 25 July 1987.

He took over as the Chief of Army Staff on 1 May 1988.[1]
He retired on 30 June 1990.

Statement on Corruption in the Indian Army

According to retired army chief Vishwanath Sharma, “It is the exposure to local contractors during the purchase of rations, vehicles or armaments for the army which introduces these officers to corruption. Once they take the bait, it becomes a vicious circle. The army must be extremely ruthless when dealing with these corrupt officers, so as to send a message to everyone at large.”

Preceded by
Krishnaswamy Sundarji
Chief of Army Staff
1988–1990
Succeeded by
Sunith Francis Rodrigues

See also

References

  1. ^ Page 50, Where Gallantry is Tradition: Saga of Rashtriya Indian Military College, By Bikram Singh, Sidharth Mishra, Contributor Rashtriya Indian Military College, Published 1997, Allied Publishers, ISBN 81-7023-649-5

http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Sunith_Francis_Rodrigues&oldid=518566075





File:General Sunith Francis Rodrigues PVSM, VSM COAS -16th Chief of Army Staff of Indian Army.jpg

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[edit]Summary

Description
English: Gen. S.F. Rodrigues, PVSM, VSM was appointed Governor of Punjab and Administrator, Union Territory, Chandigarh on 8th November, 2004 and he was sworn in to the office on November 16, 2004. He is the 32nd Governor of Punjab.
Date19 October 2012, 05:59:31
SourceOwn work
AuthorMamtapolicedhody
General Rodrigues joined the Indian Military Academy in 1949 and was commissioned, in December 1952, in the Regiment of Artillery.

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Sunith Francis Rodrigues

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General Sunith Francis Rodrigues
File:General Sunith Francis Rodrigues PVSM, VSM COAS -16th Chief of Army Staff of Indian Army.jpg
16th Chief of Army Staff of the Indian Army.
Born19 September 1933
Bombay
Allegiance India
Service/branchIndian Army
Years of serviceDecember 1952 to 30 June 1993
RankGeneral
Gen. (Retd.) Sunith Francis Rodrigues, PVSM, VSM, was the 16th , Chief of the Army Staff of the Indian Army. Born on 19 September 1933 in Bombay. General Sunith Francis Rodrigues assumed charge of the Indian Army, as the 16th Chief of Army Staff, on 30 June 1990.
Over the years as Governor, in Punjab, he has generally received a positive response by the Punjabi press (India) and the Punjabi people have accepted him as one their own due to his strong campaigning of Punjabi interests in India.

Contents

  [hide

Education

He was educated at St. Xaviers High School, Bombay. His religion is Christianity.

Military service

He joined the joint Services Wing of the Indian Military Academy in 1949 and was commissioned in December 1952 into Regiment ofArtillery.
He attended the Defence Services Staff College and took overas GSOI operations in a corps Hq in 1971.
In 1972, after the war with Pakistan, he was awarded the VSM for distinguished service. He later served as a GSOI operations of a division from 1973 to 1975.
He commanded a mountain brigade in a high altitude sector from 1975 to 1977 then attended the 1978 course at Royal College of Defence Studies in the UK. He was Chief Instructor at Defence Services Staff College from 1979 to November 1981, then took over the command of a division in a high altitude area. In 1982, he was awarded the Masters Degree in Defence Studies, was the Chief of Staff of a Corps from 1983 to September 1985 then took over as Director General Military Training.
He was GOC of A corps in the Northern Sector in 1986. He was Vice Chief of Army Staff from November 1987 to April 1989 and then GOC-in-C of Central Command from April 1989 to October 1989 then tool over Western Command from 1 November 1989 to 30 June 1990 then was the Chief of Army Staff from 1990 to 1993. He retired on 30 June 1993 after putting in nearly 41 years of dedicated service.
General Rodrigues was known among his compatriots as a thinker and a strategist.

Public service

After his retirement he was Director of the International Centre, Goa for nearly six years. He served two terms on the National Security Advisory Board. Since his retirement, he has been engaged in social and literary pursuits and has also been delivering talks on strategic issues. He takes a keen interest in education and empowering children to achieve their potential. He was on the Executive Council of Goa University for 7 years and on the Managing Committee of the Goa Chamber of Commerce. He is also a long standing Member of the Goa Planning Board and on the Board of Governors of the Goa Institute of Management.

Post Retirement

Post retirement, he served as the Director of the International Centre, Goa for nearly six years. He also served two terms on the National Security Advisory Board. He has also been engaged in social and literary pursuits and has also been delivering talks on strategic issues. He takes a keen interest in education and empowering children to achieve their potential. He was on the Executive Council of Goa University for seven years and on the Managing Committee of the Goa Chamber of Commerce & Industry. He was appointed as the 32nd Governor of Punjab on 09 November 2004 and is the second former Army Chief, after General Om Prakash Malhotra (Retd.) to hold that appointment.He was appointed Governor of Punjab and Administrator, Union TerritoryChandigarh on 8 November 2004 and he was sworn in to the office on 16 November 2004.He was succeeded by Shivraj Patil on 22 January 2010.[1]
He is also a long standing member of the Goa Planning Board and is on the Board of Governors of the Goa Institute of Management. He is married to Jean Rodrigues and they have two sons and a daughter.

Governor of Punjab and Administrator

Under his stewardship, Chandigarh City has been acclaimed as the best in the Country in many respects, in terms of physical infrastructure, business environment, real estate and as an emerging growth center, in a study and survey conducted by an Independent Global Research Group. It is a matter of record that the work on about 305 projects has been launched, with the focus on improving the quality of life of all sections of the people. He took special interest in upgrading the education, health and social infrastructure in the City, by up-grading existing hospitals and conceiving projects like the Education City and Medicity. His concept of setting up of Sampark Centers and E-Gram Sampark Centers has become very popular and give a major relief to the citizens. He has also dedicated himself to the empowerment of the disadvantaged sections and various innovative programmes, like Slum Rehabilitation, with 25,728 flats being constructed, Home-cum-Vocational Center for Street Children and Homes for Disabled, Crippled and Mentally Retarded Children have established him as a sincere and committed friend of Aam Admi. He is taking a special interest in eradicating the menace of drug addiction, female foeticide and working for an improvement in the infant mortality rate and the inculcation of moral values among children.He remained as Governor of Punjab and Administrator, Union Territory, Chandigarh from November 16, 2004 to April 22, 2010.
He was succeeded by Shivraj Patil on 22 January 2010.[2]

References

  1. ^ "Shiv Raj Patil is 33rd Governor of Punjab"Punjab Newsline Network. Friday, 22 January 2010.
  2. ^ "Shiv Raj Patil is 33rd Governor of Punjab"Punjab Newsline Network. Friday, 22 January 2010.
Preceded by
Vishwa Nath Sharma
Chief of Army Staff
1990–1993
Succeeded by
Bipin Chandra Joshi





File:General Bipin Chandra Joshi.jpg

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Description
English: General Bipin Chandra Joshi, taking the salute at the South Block, New Delhi on July 13, 1993 after being appointed as Chief of Army staff.
Date19 October 2012, 03:06:29
SourceOwn work
AuthorMamtapolicedhody
Photograph Date: : 13/07/1993

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Bipin Chandra Joshi

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General Bipin Chandra Joshi
File:General Bipin Chandra Joshi - PVSM, AVSM, ADC COAS, 30 June 1993 - 19 November 1994 -17th Chief of Army Staff of Indian Army.jpg
17th Chief of Army Staff of the Indian Army.
Born1935
Uttarakhand
DiedMilitary hospital in New Delhi - 19 November 1994 (59)
Allegiance India
Service/branchIndian Army
Years of serviceDecember 1954 - due to retire in December 1995.
RankGeneral
General Bipin Chandra JoshiPVSMAVSM, ADC (1935 – November 19, 1994) was the 17th Chief of Army Staff (CoAS) of the Indian Army. He was born in Uttarakhand formerly known as UttaranchalIndia. Many of his relatives still live there.

Contents

  [hide

Career

General Joshi also became Colonel of the Regiment (a ceremonial military patron's post) for the 64 Cavalry later in his career.[citation needed]
File:General Bipin Chandra Joshi.jpg
General Bipin Chandra Joshi, taking the salute at the South Block, New Delhi on July 13, 1993 after being appointed as Chief of Army staff

Notable Landmarks in Career

He has also held the appointment of Additional Director General of Perspective Planning (ADGPP) and Director General Military Operations (DGMO) at the Army HQ. He had three tenures as an Instructor in the Armoured Corps Centre & School and was also a Directing Staff in the College of Combat, Mhow.

Medals

General Joshi has been a recipient of the Param Vishisht Seva Medal (PVSM) and the Ati Vishisht Seva Medal (AVSM) for distinguished service of the most exceptional order.

Death

General Joshi died of heart attack in New Delhi military hospital on November 19, 1994.[2] .He had complained of chest pain after he played a round of golf in the morning, and he died soon afterward in the hospital. He was due to retire in 1995. He is the only General of Indian military who died while in service.

In His Memory

The Gen B.C.Joshi Army Public School was established.
A sapling which was sown by Gen BC Joshi on 16th Oct 1993, is now a sprawling campus of 23 acres with pollution free healthy environment. It has turned into a healthy plant and is growing well in the beautiful valley of the Pithoragarh hills. General BC Joshi Army Public School has been established under the aegis of Army Head Quarters, Adjutant General's Branch, to cater to the needs of children of defence personnel including ex-service men, and to some extent to those of civilians and Non-Resident Indians. The School aims at providing quality education in an environment that ensembles the contemporary values of science and technology with our rich traditions, ideals and cultural heritage. It also ensures a judicious mix of academic competencies, physical fitness, discipline and social awareness. It prepares children for All India Secondary School Examinations and All India Senior Secondary School Examinations conducted by CBSE, New Delhi

References

  1. a b c d e f g h i "CHIEFS OF THE INDIAN ARMY". bharat-rakshak.com.
  2. ^ "Gen. Bipin Chandra Joshi, Indian Army Chief, 59". NY times. November 19, 1994. Retrieved April 26, 2010.

External links

Preceded by
Sunith Francis Rodrigues
Chief of Army Staff
1993–1994
Succeeded by
Shankar Roychowdhury


File:General Shankar Roychowdhury , PVSM, ADC COAS ,18th Chief of Army Staff ,Indian Army.jpg

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General_Shankar_Roychowdhury_,_PVSM,_ADC_COAS_,18th_Chief_of_Army_Staff_,Indian_Army.jpg ‎(280 × 400 pixels, file size: 67 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg)

[edit]Summary

Description
English: Former chief of army staff Shankar Roy Chowdhury (18th) wants the Government of India to be very much alert and aware of the developments taking place in the Maldives. Because “Islamic fundamentalism” has taken deep roots over there, and Islamic elements had their hands in the dethroning of Nasheed. I.S.I, Al-Qaida and Taleban, with the help of local “jihadi” groups like Al-Shabab, can establish a dangerous Islamic system there. If it so happens, to Gen. Chowdhury, it will create a very dangerous situation for Bharat. Gen. Chowdhury is also amazed and sorrowful that such a big event took place in the neighbourhood of Bharat and the public did not take any notice of it. Former chief of army staff has expressed these views formally in an article published in The Asian Age (Apr 3). The General has also linked the developments in the Maldives to those taking place in certain Arab countries, and said that Bharat has no objection to the change in governments; however the matter of concern is that as a result of these developments very hardcore Islamic ideological systems in the form of Salfism and Wahabism are being formed there. 11/04/2012
Date18 October 2012, 23:59:55
SourceOwn work
AuthorMamtapolicedhody
Chief of Army Staff, 22 November 1994 ; Member of Parliament (Rajya Sabha).
English: Former chief of army staff Shankar Roy Chowdhury (18th) wants the Government of India to be very much alert and aware of the developments taking place in the Maldives. Because “Islamic fundamentalism” has taken deep roots over there, and Islamic elements had their hands in the dethroning of Nasheed. I.S.I, Al-Qaida and Taleban, with the help of local “jihadi” groups like Al-Shabab, can establish a dangerous Islamic system there. If it so happens, to Gen. Chowdhury, it will create a very dangerous situation for Bharat. Gen. Chowdhury is also amazed and sorrowful that such a big event took place in the neighbourhood of Bharat and the public did not take any notice of it. Former chief of army staff has expressed these views formally in an article published in The Asian Age (Apr 3). The General has also linked the developments in the Maldives to those taking place in certain Arab countries, and said that Bharat has no objection to the change in governments; however the matter of concern is that as a result of these developments very hardcore Islamic ideological systems in the form of Salfism and Wahabism are being formed there. 11/04/2012




Shankar Roychowdhury


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General Shankar Roychowdhury
File:General Shankar Roychowdhury , PVSM, ADC COAS ,18th Chief of Army Staff ,Indian Army.jpg
18th Chief of Army Staff of the Indian Army.
BornSeptember 6, 1937
Calcutta
Allegiance India
Service/branchIndian Army
Years of service09 June 1957 to 30th September 1997
RankGeneral

General Shankar Roychowdhury (General S. Roychowdhury) (born September 6, 1937, Kolkata) is a former Indian soldier, parliamentarian, and defence expert. Commissioned into the 20th Lancers in 1957, General Roychowdhury rose to become the 18th Chief of Army Staff of the Indian Armyfrom 22 November 1994 to 30 September 1997.[1].He is an alumnus of both ,St. Xavier's Collegiate SchoolKolkata, and St. George's CollegeMussoorie,Class of 1953.

Contents

  [hide

Career

General Shankar Roychowdhury assumed charge of the Indian Army, as the 18th Chief of Army Staff, on 22 November 1994. Born in Calcutta on 06 September 1937, he was educated at St. Xavier's School, Calcutta, Allen Memorial School and St. George's College, Mussoorie. He entered the Joint Services Wing of the Armed Services in 1953 as a Cadet. He was commissioned into the 20th Lancers of the Armoured Corps from the Indian Military Academy (IMA), Dehra Dun on 09 June 1957.
He saw action at the Chamb-Jaurian sector in the 1965 Indo-Pak War and in the Jessore and Khulna during the 1971 Liberation War. He commanded 20 Lancers from 1974-76, an Independent Armoured Brigade from December 1980 to July 1983 and an Armoured Division from May 1988 to May 1990.
He subsequently commanded 16 Corps in Jammu and Kashmir from 1991-92. He is a graduate of the Defence Services Staff College (DSSC) and held several staff and instructional appointments, including that of Director General Combat Vehicles dealing with the Arjun MBT.
He was awarded the Param Vishisht Seva Medal for distinguished service and valuable contribution. He took over as General Officer Commanding–in-Chief, Army Training Command (ARTRAC) in August 1992.
He became the Army Chief upon the untimely death of his predecessor, General B.C. Joshi, on 22 November 1994. He retired from the Indian Army on September 1997, after completing 40 years of distinguished service to the nation.

Medals

He has received the Param Vishisht Seva Medal for distinguished service to the Indian Army and to the nation.

Post Retirement

He also became member of Rajya Sabha after his retirement.

References

  1. ^ Abidi, S. Sartaj Alam; Sharma, Satinder (2007-01-01). Services Chiefs of India. Northern Book Centre. pp. 82–.ISBN 9788172111625. Retrieved 29 May 2012.

External links

Preceded by
Bipin Chandra Joshi
Chief of Army Staff
1994–1997
Succeeded by
Ved Prakash Malik



File:General Ved Prakash Malik 19th Chief of Army Staff of the Indian Army..jpg

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[edit]Summary

Description
English: General Ved Prakash Malik or General V.P. Malik served as 19th Chief of Army Staff of the Indian Army. He has received the Ati Vishisht Seva Medal and the Param Vishisht Seva Medal for distinguished service to the Indian Army and to the nation; He was Army Chief during Kargil War. As Chief of the Army Staff, Gen. Malik had dual responsibility of being an “advisor” to the Government as well as commander of over a one million strong Indian army and managed all its functions to fulfill its national role and assigned missions. As Army Chief with additional responsibility of Chairman, Chief of Staff Committee, he oversaw intensified anti terrorist operations in Jammu and Kashmir and north east India, management of disputed borders with China and Pakistan and security relations with other nations. He planned, coordinated and oversaw execution of operation Vijay to successfully defeat Pakistan’s attempted intrusion in Kargil sector in 1999. His military career and subsequent membership of the National Security Advisory Board has given him considerable expertise to speak on India’s security challenges. In 2007, he was nominated on the judges’ panel to select and rank Top Companies for Leaders in Asia Pacific Region by Hewitt Associates who undertook this exercise in collaboration with Fortune Magazine and The RBL Group. General Malik draws on these experiences, achievements and leadership practices to deliver a very inspiring and motivational session to his audience. He has addressed several universities, corporate organizations and civil and military institutions in India and abroad. He is on the board of RELIANCE Infrastructure, Hero Honda Motors Limited, BSES Rajdhani Power Limited and BSES Yamuna Power Limited as an Independent Director.
Date18 October 2012, 14:31:27
SourceOwn work
AuthorMamtapolicedhody
General Ved Prakash Malik assumed charge of the Indian Army, as the 19th Chief of Army Staff, on 30 September 1997. Born on 01 November 1939 at Dera Ismail Khan (present-day Pakistan), he was commissioned into the Sikh Light Infantry on 07 June 1959.

[edit]Licensing

I, the copyright holder of this work, hereby publish it under the following license:
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attribution share alike
This file is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unportedlicense.
You are free:
  • to share – to copy, distribute and transmit the work
  • to remix – to adapt the work
Under the following conditions:
  • attribution – You must attribute the work in the manner specified by the author or licensor (but not in any way that suggests that they endorse you or your use of the work).
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General Ved Prakash Malik assumed charge of the Indian Army, as the 19th Chief of Army Staff, on 30 September 1997. Born on 01 November 1939 at Dera Ismail Khan (present-day Pakistan), he was commissioned into the Sikh Light Infantry on 07 June 1959.
 General Ved Prakash Malik or General V.P. Malik served as 19th Chief of Army Staff of the Indian Army. He has received the Ati Vishisht Seva Medal and the Param Vishisht Seva Medal for distinguished service to the Indian Army and to the nation; He was Army Chief during Kargil War. As Chief of the Army Staff, Gen. Malik had dual responsibility of being an “advisor” to the Government as well as commander of over a one million strong Indian army and managed all its functions to fulfill its national role and assigned missions. As Army Chief with additional responsibility of Chairman, Chief of Staff Committee, he oversaw intensified anti terrorist operations in Jammu and Kashmir and north east India, management of disputed borders with China and Pakistan and security relations with other nations. He planned, coordinated and oversaw execution of operation Vijay to successfully defeat Pakistan’s attempted intrusion in Kargil sector in 1999. His military career and subsequent membership of the National Security Advisory Board has given him considerable expertise to speak on India’s security challenges. In 2007, he was nominated on the judges’ panel to select and rank Top Companies for Leaders in Asia Pacific Region by Hewitt Associates who undertook this exercise in collaboration with Fortune Magazine and The RBL Group. General Malik draws on these experiences, achievements and leadership practices to deliver a very inspiring and motivational session to his audience. He has addressed several universities, corporate organizations and civil and military institutions in India and abroad. He is on the board of RELIANCE Infrastructure, Hero Honda Motors Limited, BSES Rajdhani Power Limited and BSES Yamuna Power Limited as an Independent Director.

Ved Prakash Malik

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General Ved Prakash Malik
File:General Ved Prakash Malik 19th Chief of Army Staff of the Indian Army..jpg
19th Chief of Army Staff
BornNovember 1, 1939
Allegiance India
Service/branchIndian Army
Years of service07 June 1959 to 30 September 2000.
RankGeneral

General Ved Prakash Malik (born November 1, 1939) in Dera Ismail Khan,North West Frontier ProvinceBritish India) served as the 19th Chief of Army Staff of the Indian Army from 30-September-1997 till 30-September-2000.[1]

Contents

  [hide

Career

General Ved Prakash Malik assumed charge of the Indian Army, as the 19th Chief of Army Staff, on 30 September 1997. Born on 01 November 1939 at Dera Ismail Khan (present-day Pakistan), he was commissioned into the Sikh Light Infantry on 07 June 1959. He saw action in the 1962 Indo-China border conflict in the Ladakh sector. He commanded the 10th Sikh LI on the Indo-China border and played an active role in counter-insurgency operations in Nagaland from 1974 to 1977.
His other assignments include Instructor in the Senior Command Wing at the College of Combat from 1977-78, Joint Planning Staff in the Military Wing of the Cabinet Secretariat from 1979-80, Deputy Brigade Commander of an Infantry Brigade from 1980-82, Colonel of an Infantry Division from 1982-83 and Commander of the 162nd Infantry Brigade in Jammu & Kashmir from April 1983 to December 1985, where he earned the Ati Vishist Seva Medal (AVSM).
In 1986 he attended the National Defence College (NDC) in New Delhi. He served as Deputy Director General of Military Operations from 1987 to 1990 during which he dealt with operational plans for the defence of northern borders as also two international operations - IPKF (Indian Peace Keeping Force) operations in Sri Lanka and Operation Cactus in Maldives. In mid-1989, he was appointed GOC-in-C of the 8th Mountain Division which was initially deployed in counter-insurgency operations in NEFA (North East Frontier Agency). He saw service in J&K again to conduct COIN operations in the Kashmir Valley from December 1989 till May 1991.
He also held the office of Additional Director General of Operational Logistics, at Army HQ from 1991 to mid-1992. Along with operational responsibility of the Indo-Pak border, he commanded XI Corps in Punjab from August 1992 till March 1994 during which he over saw anti-militant operations. A graduate of DSSC, General Malik was posted to MilitaryOps. Directorate at Army HQ in the section dealing with COIN operations. He attended the Higher Command Course at the College of Combat, Mhow and was posted as an instructor in the Tactical Wing at the Infantry School, also in Mhow. As Commandant of the Defence Services Staff College (DSSC) in Wellington, from April 1994 to July 1995, he was instrumental in updating the syllabus and computerisation of staff work. In July 1995, he was appointed GOC-in-C Southern Command before being shifted to Army HQ in New Delhi as the Vice-Chief of Army Staff (VCOAS) in August 1996. He was decorated with the Param Vishist Seva Medal (PVSM) by the President of India, in the 1996 Republic Day Parade.
General Malik assumed the charge of Indian Army on 30 September 1997 and concurrently with the appointment, he took over as Chairman of the Chiefs of Staff Committee with effect from 01 January 1999. He coordinated and oversaw the planning & execution of Operation Vijay to successfully defeat Pakistan's attempted intrusion in the Kargil sector during May to July 1999. He was felicitated with the Excellence in Leadership award by the Atur Foundation of Pune and also the Distinguished Fellowship of the Institute of Directors, New Delhi in 1999. The Doon Citizens' Council gave him the Pride of the Nation award in July 2000. He was Colonel of the Sikh LI from 1990 to 1998 and continues to be Honorary Colonel of the regiment for life. He retired on 30 September 2000, after completing more than 41 years of distinguished military service. During his tenure he was the Colonel of the Sikh Light Infantry.

Medals

He has received the Ati Vishisht Seva Medal and the Param Vishisht Seva Medal for distinguished service to the Indian Army and to the nation.He was the Army Chief during the Kargil War.

Post Retirement

General Malik military career and subsequent membership of the National Security Advisory Board has given him considerable expertise to speak on India’s security challenges. In 2007, he was nominated on the judges’ panel to select and rank Top Companies for Leaders in Asia Pacific Region by Hewitt Associates who undertook this exercise in collaboration with Fortune Magazine and The RBL Group. General Malik draws on these experiences, achievements and leadership practices to deliver a very inspiring and motivational session to his audience. He has addressed several universities, corporate organizations and civil and military institutions in India and abroad. He is on the board of RELIANCE Infrastructure, Hero Honda Motors Limited, BSES Rajdhani Power Limited and BSES Yamuna Power Limited as an Independent Director.[[1]]
Malik is presently a resident of PanchkulaHaryana.[2]

References

  1. ^ "Wait and watch then talk with Pak, says Gen Malik"Indian Express. November 13, 1999. Retrieved July 9, 2011.
  2. ^ Abidi, S. Sartaj Alam; Sharma, Satinder (2007). Services chiefs of India. Northern Book Centre. pp. 84–85. Retrieved July 9, 2011.
Preceded by
Shankar Roychowdhury
Chief of Army Staff
1997–2000
Succeeded by
Sundararajan Padmanabhan




File:General Sundararajan Padmanabhan - 20th Chief of Army Staff of Indian Army.PVSM, AVSM, ADC COAS, 30 Sept 2000 - 31 Dec 2002.jpg

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English: Gen Padmanabhan has extensively dealt with the situation in Jammu & Kashmir during his career in the army and the central government was keen on having him as the Governor of the State. Born in Trivandrm, Kerala on 5 December 1940, Gen Padmanabhan was the army chief between September 2000 and December 2002. General Padmanabhan’s tenure as Chief of the Army Staff was marked by the conduct of Operation Parakram involving mobilizing the army along the border with Pakistan. His tenure as the army chief was marked by the conduct of Operation Parakram involving massive mobilization of the troops along the border with Pakistan in December 2000 when the two countries were almost at the brink of a war following the Parliament attack. Gen Padmanabhan was the General Officer Commanding (GOC) of the army’s Kashmir-based 15 Corps from July 1993 to February 1995. He was Director General Military Intelligence for a brief stint between March 1995 to August 1996, before taking over as the GOC of the Udhampur-based Northern Command in September 1996.
Gen Padmanabhan is known for his strong views about finding a political solution of the problems in Jammu & Kashmir, that he used to reiterate often even during his tenure as the GOC 15 corps at the peak of militancy in Kashmir. He is also a vocal detractor of the American policies and is on record to have said that ‘ America is a rogue state in a class of its own’. He has also authored a book titled, India Checkmates America 2017.
Date 18 October 2012, 15:17:20
Source Own work
Author Mamtapolicedhody
Born on 5th Dec 1940, General S Padmanabhan was commissioned in the Regiment of Artillery on 13th Dec 1959.

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Gen Padmanabhan has extensively dealt with the situation in Jammu & Kashmir during his career in the army and the central government was keen on having him as the Governor of the State. Born in Trivandrm, Kerala on 5 December 1940, Gen Padmanabhan was the army chief between September 2000 and December 2002. General Padmanabhan’s tenure as Chief of the Army Staff was marked by the conduct of Operation Parakram involving mobilizing the army along the border with Pakistan. His tenure as the army chief was marked by the conduct of Operation Parakram involving massive mobilization of the troops along the border with Pakistan in December 2000 when the two countries were almost at the brink of a war following the Parliament attack. Gen Padmanabhan was the General Officer Commanding (GOC) of the army’s Kashmir-based 15 Corps from July 1993 to February 1995. He was Director General Military Intelligence for a brief stint between March 1995 to August 1996, before taking over as the GOC of the Udhampur-based Northern Command in September 1996.
Gen Padmanabhan is known for his strong views about finding a political solution of the problems in Jammu & Kashmir, that he used to reiterate often even during his tenure as the GOC 15 corps at the peak of militancy in Kashmir. He is also a vocal detractor of the American policies and is on record to have said that ‘ America is a rogue state in a class of its own’. He has also authored a book titled, India Checkmates America 2017.

Born on 5th Dec 1940, General S Padmanabhan was commissioned in the Regiment of Artillery on 13th Dec 1959.


Sundararajan Padmanabhan

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General Sundararajan Padmanabhan
File:General Sundararajan Padmanabhan - 20th Chief of Army Staff of Indian Army.PVSM, AVSM, ADC COAS, 30 Sept 2000 - 31 Dec 2002.jpg
20th Chief of Army Staff of the Indian Army.
NicknamePaddy
Born5 December 1940(age 71)
TrivandrumKerala
AllegianceRepublic of India
Service/branchIndian Army
Years of service13 December 1959 to 31 December 2002
RankGeneral
Sundararajan Padmanabhan (born 5 December 1940 TrivandrumKerala) was the Chief of Army Staff of the Indian Army[1] Padmanabhan succeededGeneral V.P. Malik on September 30, 2000.[1]General Sundararajan Padmanabhan assumed charge of the Indian Army, as the 20th Chief of Army Staff and joined duty on 1st of October 2000, being a recipient of PVSM, AVSM, VSM and an Honorary ADC to the President of India.
General Padmanabhan was schooled at the Rashtriya Indian Military College. In 1956 Padmanabhan joined the National Defence Academy and in 1959 was enrolled into the Regiment of Artillery.[1]

Career Details

Born in Trivandrum, Kerala on 05 December 1940, he is an alumnus of the prestigious Rashtriya Indian Military College (RIMC), Dehra Dun and the National Defence Academy (NDA), Khadakwasla in Pune. He was commissioned into the Regiment of Artillery after graduating from the Indian Military Academy (IMA) on 13 December 1959.
He served as Instructor Gunnery at School of Artillery , Deolali and attended the Staff Course at DSSC, Wellington in 1973. He commanded an Independent Light Battery from Aug 1975 to Jul 1976, and later on commanded the Gazala Mountain Regiment from September 1977 to March 1980. This mountain regiment is one of the oldest artillery regiments of the Indian Army and has participated in several wars.
He served as Instructor Gunnery at the School of Artillery in Deolali, been a Brigade Major of an infantry brigade on its raising and served as Colonel General Staff of a Mountain Division from January 1983 to May 1985, where he was awarded the Vishisht Seva Medal (VSM). He has also spent two tenures as Instructor at the IMA. Within army circles, he is affectionately known as Paddy. He commanded an Independent Artillery Brigade and a Mountain Brigade before attending the prestigious NDC course at Delhi.
He commanded an Infantry Brigade from December 1988 to February 1991 at Ranchi, Bihar and Punjab and was then appointed as the General Officer Commanding of an Infantry Division in Punjab from March 1991 to August 1992. He served as Chief of Staff, 3 Corps from September 1992 to June 1993. After his promotion to Lieutenant General, he was commander of the 15 Corps in the Kashmir valley from July 1993 to February 1995. It was during his tenure as the 15 Corps Commander, that the Army made big gains over the militants in Kashmir and could even scale down its operations. He was awarded the Ati Vishisht Seva Medal (AVSM) for his services as the 15 Corps Commander. General Padmanabhan held the appointment of Director General Military Intelligence (DGMI) after the successful culmination of which, he took over as the GOC of the Northern Command at Udhampur on 01 September 1996. Before being appointed as the Chief of Army Staff, he was the GOC of Southern Command. He retired on 31 December 2002, after completing more than 43 years of distinguished military service.

Author

The General Officer is a prolific writer Indian military fiction and has authored two books titled 'The Writing on the Wall' (2004)the plot of which involves India fighting a war simultaneously with Pakistan while improving relations with China ; as also : 'India Checkmates America-2017' and 'A General Speaks'. He is also a vocal detractor of the American policies and is on record to have said that ‘ America is a rogue state in a class of its own’ The General presently resides in Chennai.

References

  1. a b c "Lt. Gen. Padmanabhan, new Army Chief"The Hindu. 2000-08-02. Retrieved 2009-04-26.
Preceded by
V.P. Malik
Chief of Army Staff
2000–2002
Succeeded by
N.C. Vij

The 1988 (or 30th) Grammy Awards were held March 2, 1988 at Radio City Music HallNew York. They recognized accomplishments by musicians from the previous year.[1][2]
Album of the Year went to Brian Eno and Daniel Lanois for The Joshua Tree, and Song of the Year went to Barry MannCynthia Weil and James Horner for "Somewhere Out There".

Reggae





The W88 is a United States thermonuclear warhead, with an estimated yield of 475 kiloton(kt), and is small enough to fit on MIRVed missiles. The W88 was designed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory in the 1970s. In 1999, the director of Los Alamos who had presided over its design described it as "The most advanced U.S. nuclear warhead."[1]
The Trident II submarine-launched ballistic missile (SLBM) can be armed with up to four W88 warheads (Mark 5 re-entry vehicle) or eight 100 kt W76 warheads (Mark 4 re-entry vehicle), but it is limited to 4 warheads under the Strategic Offensive Reductions Treaty.


The Timeline of Cox Report controversy is a chronology of information relating to the People's Republic of China's (PRC) allegednuclear espionage against the United States detailed in the Congressional Cox Report. The timeline also includes documented information relating to relevant investigations and reactions by the White House, the U.S. Congress, the Federal Bureau of Investigation(FBI), and United States Department of Justice.

Contents

  [hide

[edit]1995

June

John Deutch
July
October
November
  • CIA Director Deutch informed Clinton's National Security Adviser Anthony Lake about the PRC's theft of America's nuclear weapon designs sometime in November 1995. The president was not briefed at that time.[3]
  • In late 1995 and early 1996, United States Department of Energy (DOE) intelligence official Notra Trulock took his findings on the PRC's theft of advanced U.S. nuclear warhead designs to the FBI. Trulock made the discovery independently from the CIA while analyzing data from the PRC's recent underground nuclear test. A team of FBI and DOE officials then traveled to three weapons labs (LivermoreSandia and Los Alamos) and pored over travel and work records of lab scientists who had access to the relevant technology. By February, they narrowed its focus to five possible suspects.[2]

[edit]1996

  • In early 1996, Notra Trulock told CIA officials about his discoveries on the PRC's theft of America's nuclear warhead designs.[2]
February

A model of a typical satellite
  • On February 14, a People's Liberation Army (PLA) space launch vehicle crashed destroying the Loral Space & Communications satellite it was carrying. PRC officials kept American investigators away from the crash scene. When they were finally allowed access, they found the militarily sensitive encryption chips were missing even though their encasing was left intact (encryption technology denies outsiders access to, or control over, American satellites in space).[5] Loral and Hughes Electronics' engineers were accused of giving missile secrets to China in the ensuing investigation of the launch failure.[6][7][8][9]
March
  • On March 27, Energy Department officials were notified by an American agent that it appeared the PRC recently stole U.S. neutron bomb secrets.[10]
April
  • Sometime in April 1996, intelligence analyst Ronald Pandolfi wrote a report for the CIA warning about military implications of Hughes Electronics' sharing of missile expertise with the PRC. The CIA decided not to distribute the classified report to select government officials, as is routinely done with intelligence estimates, saying it was insufficiently rigorous. The report would be kept from Congress until late 1998.[11]

Samuel "Sandy" Berger
  • On April 13, the Energy Department briefed the White House about the PRC's espionage at Los Alamos weapons lab. A group of senior officials including Notra Trulock met with Deputy National Security AdvisorSandy Berger and told him that the PRC appeared to have acquired both W-88 nuclear and neutron bombsecrets and that a spy for the PRC might still be at Los Alamos. Berger later stated he did not inform the president of the espionage until July 1997,[2] but did inform Congress in April 1996[3] The Energy Department also notified Defense Secretary Perry, Attorney General Janet Reno, and FBI Director Louis Freeh about China's alleged espionage during this same time period. Allegedly, no one informed the president.[12]
  • Sometime in April, Vice President Al Gore's national security advisor Leon Fuerth was informed about the PRC's nuclear espionage at America's weapons laboratories. Some documents showed he may have been informed as early as 1995, though Fuerth did not recall a briefing then. Fuerth did not mention the espionage to Gore until March 1999.[13]
May
  • On May 30, the FBI formally opened a criminal investigation into the theft of the W-88 nuclear design. Originally only 1 or 2 agents were assigned to the case and the inquiry made little progress over the rest of the year.[3]
June
  • In late June or early July, the CIA issued an internal government statement that declared they may have misread their original analysis of the documents delivered by the double agent to their Taiwan offices and that China may not have America's weapons designs after all. The FBI, in turn, suspended their investigation of the matter (which had just started) for about six weeks.[3]

[edit]1997

  • Sometime in early 1997, Energy Department intelligence analyst Notra Trulock learned of new nuclear espionage evidence. He attempted to contact newly appointed Energy Secretary Federico Peña about the information but was not given an appointment to see him until July.[2]
April
  • The FBI issued a classified report that recommended background checks on foreign visitors to nuclear laboratories be reinstated. The Energy Department ignored the recommendations for 17 months.[2]
May
  • In May 1997, Los Alamos laboratory scientist Wen Ho Lee was targeted as part of a political character assassination. (He was a suspect since February 1996 in the FBI's investigation of China's nuclear espionage campaign) was promoted to a position that required an even higher security clearance than he already had. The Justice Department repeatedly refused FBI requests to tap Wen Ho Lee's phone and gain access to his computer over the next few months because there was insufficient evidence against him.[14]The judge in the case would later apologize to Lee for the government's gross misconduct in the case, for misrepresenting the facts to the judge, for causing Lee to be confined without bail, and for violating the principles of the separation of powers. Lee did a plea bargain in September 13, 2000 to a single count under the Espionage Act 18 USC 793(e), withholding national defense information, in order to avoid the 'vagaries' of a jury trial. All other counts were dropped,[15] and the President later apologized to Lee. Lee would go on to win a multimillion dollar lawsuit against the government and the media for invasion of privacy.

Attorney General Janet Reno
  • Former Sandia and Los Alamos laboratory employee Peter Lee (no relation to Wen Ho Lee) gave top secret information on antisubmarine radar technology away to Chinese nuclear-weapons experts during a May 11lecture at the Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics in Beijing, China. Lee pled guilty to filing a false statement about his 1997 trip to China and to giving classified laser data to Chinese scientists during an earlier trip to China in 1985.[16]
July
  • Sometime in July, Secretary Peña met with Notra Trulock who had new information about China's ongoing espionage at America's nuclear weapons laboratories. After the meeting, Peña sent him to see National Security Advisor Sandy Berger.[2] Trulock then briefed Berger. Afterwards, Berger then briefed President Clinton about China's nuclear espionage campaign for the first time.[2]
August
  • Sandy Berger went to China August 10.[17] Before he left, he assigned his NSC aide in charge of proliferation to assess the nuclear espionage situation. The aide later stated that, while the espionage had taken place, Trulock's briefing was only a worst-case scenario.[2]
September

FBI Director Louis Freeh
  • Sometime in September, FBI Director Louis Freeh recommended the Energy Department fire nuclear scientist Wen Ho Lee. They ignored his recommendation for 18 months.[18]
  • Also in September, Attorney General Reno opened a criminal investigation into Loral Space & Communications and Hughes Electronics' illegal transfer of ballistic missile technology to China.
October
  • On October 29, President Clinton certified that China was not engaging in the export of nuclear technology to non-nuclear nations, which allowed a 1985 Sino-U.S. nuclear cooperation agreement to go into effect in 1998. The agreement allowed for the shipping of nuclear power plant technology to China.[19] "This agreement is a win-win," Clinton said. "It serves America's national security, environmental and economic interests… It is the right thing to do for America."[20]
November

PRC President Jiang Zemin
  • PRC President Jiang Zemin completed his tour of the United States with a November 2–3 visit to Los Angeles. While there, he toured Hughes Electronics' main headquarters and manufacturing plant.[21] Hughes Electronics was fined $32 million in 2003 for illegally transferring missile technology to China in 1995.[22]
  • On November 7, 1997, Energy Secretary Federico Peña announced the department had taken actions to strengthen the safeguards and security at the department's defense nuclear facilities. In announcing the actions, Peña released two reports he said he had ordered earlier in the year on safeguards and security. "Several months ago when security concerns were first brought to my attention, I ordered these reports. Today, I am publicly releasing them because I think we have a responsibility to the American people to address these challenges as openly and directly as possible. More importantly, we are taking actions to further secure our facilities," Peña said.[23]

[edit]1998

February
  • President Clinton authorized the sale to China of a Loral-made satellite sometime in February 1998. Justice Department prosecutors who were investigating the company for possible violations of export law regarding the February 1996 failed rocket launch in China opposed this.[24] Loral was eventually fined $14 million in 2002 for its involvement in illegally transferring missile technology to China.[7]
  • Also in February, President Clinton issued a Presidential Decision Directive (PDD-61) that attempted to tighten security in all of the United States' weapons laboratories. The PDD also ordered the Department of Energy to establish a stronger counterintelligenceprogram. The exact text of the PDD is unknown as it has never been publicly released.[25]
June
  • On June 18, the House of Representatives voted 409-10 to allow the creation of a special committee to investigate whether technology or information was transferred to the People's Republic of China that may have contributed to the enhancement of their nuclear-armed intercontinental ballistic missiles. The committee was named the Select Committee on U.S. National Security and Military/Commercial Concerns with the People's Republic of China.[26]
October
  • On October 17, President Clinton signed into law recently passed legislation by Congress that reversed his 1996 Executive Order that shifted control over commercial satellite exports permits from the State Department to the Commerce Department. After signing the bill, President Clinton stated the change was: "...not necessary... and could hamper the U.S. satellite industry." The legislation would not go into effect until five months later.[27]
December
  • On December 5, The New York Times reported the Justice Department was investigating the Central Intelligence Agency for possibly obstructing justice by giving Hughes Electronics information about the House Select Committee's investigation of the company.[28]

[edit]1999

January
  • On January 3, the House Select Committee on U.S. National Security and Military/Commercial Concerns with the People's Republic of China released their classified report on their findings regarding China's espionage campaign against the United States to government officials in Congress and the White House.
March
  • Sometime in March, Secretary of State Madeleine Albright and Vice President Al Gore learned of China's thefts of America's weapons designs for the first time.[13]
  • On March 6, The New York Times published an article entitled "China Stole Nuclear Secrets From Los Alamos, U.S. Officials Say". The article publicly detailed for the first time the government's belief China had stolen classified information on the W-88 nuclear warhead.[2]
  • The Energy Department fired nuclear scientist Wen Ho Lee on March 8, 1999. FBI Director Louis Freeh recommended Lee be fired 18 months earlier.


Los Alamos logo.svg
Information:
Established:1943
Director:Charles F. McMillan
City/Location:Los Alamos,
New MexicoUnited States
Budget:$2.2 billion
Type:National security and
fundamental science
Staff/Employees:9000
Campus:36 square miles (93 km2)
Students:700
Operated by:University of California
Bechtel
Babcock & Wilcox
URS
(under the legal name
Los Alamos National Security LLC)
Website:lanl.gov
Nicknames:LANL, LANS


Julius Robert Oppenheimer[note 1] (April 22, 1904 – February 18, 1967)[1] was an American theoretical physicist and professor of physics at the University of California, Berkeley. Along with Enrico Fermi,[2][3] he is often called the "father of the atomic bomb" for his role in the Manhattan Project, the World War II project that developed the firstnuclear weapons.[4] The first atomic bomb was detonated on July 16, 1945, in the Trinity test in New Mexico; Oppenheimer remarked later that it brought to mind words from theBhagavad Gita: "Now, I am become Death, the destroyer of worlds."
As a military and public policy advisor, Oppenheimer was a technocratic leader in a shift in the interactions between science and the military and the emergence of "Big Science". During World War II, scientists became involved in military research to an unprecedented degree. Because of the threat fascism posed to Western civilization, they volunteered in great numbers both for technological and organizational assistance to the Allied effort, resulting in such powerful tools as radar, the proximity fuse and operations research. As a cultured, intellectual, theoretical physicist who became a disciplined military organizer, Oppenheimer represented the shift away from the idea that scientists had their "head in the clouds" and that knowledge on such previously esoteric subjects as the composition of the atomic nucleus had no "real-world" applications.[168]
Two days before the Trinity test, Oppenheimer expressed his hopes and fears in a quotation from the Bhagavad Gita:
In battle, in the forest, at the precipice in the mountains,
On the dark great sea, in the midst of javelins and arrows,
In sleep, in confusion, in the depths of shame,
The good deeds a man has done before defend him.[189]






Dr. Siegfried S. HeckerPhD, is an Austrian-Polish-American nuclear scientist andmetallurgist who served as the Emeritus Director of the Los Alamos National Laboratoryfrom 1986 till 1997. A nuclear weapons specialist, Dr. Hecker was the Professor in Research in the Department of Management Science and Engineering of the School of Engineering, Co-Director of the Center for International Security and Cooperation and a Senior Fellow of the at the Freeman Spogli Institute for International Studies of Stanford University.[1]

Visits to North Korea

He has visited North Korea frequently in an unofficial capacity to assess the plutonium program at the Yongbyon Nuclear Scientific Research Center (once every year since 2004).[3][4] In November 2010 Hecker visited the Yongbyon nuclear facility and reported on its advanced state.[5]






Charles F. McMillan

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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Dr. Charles F. McMillan
File:Charles F. McMillan - 10th director of Los Alamos National Laboratory on June 1, 2011..jpg
10th Director of the Los Alamos National Laboratory
Preceded byMichael R. Anastasio
Personal details
Born1955 (Age 57)
Charles McMillan is the 10th director of the Los Alamos National Laboratory.[1]
Prior to joining Los Alamos, McMillan, an experimental physicist, spent more than 20 years at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in California. He holds a doctorate in physics from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.[2][3]

Contents

  [hide

Career Details

Charles F. (Charlie) McMillan (Age -57), former principal associate director for Weapons Programs , was appointed the 10th director of Los Alamos National Laboratory on June 1, 2011.McMillan joined LANL in 2006 from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, where he served in a variety of research and management positions. Prior to being named LANL's principal associate director for Weapons Programs in 2009, McMillan led the Lab's Weapons Physics organization.Charles McMillan, 56, succeeded physicist Michael Anastasio (Born 1948), who had been lab boss since 2006. Established in 1943, Los Alamos now has an annual budget of about $2bn and employs nearly 10 000 staff.
With a PhD in physics from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, McMillan began his career in 1983 as an experimental physicist at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in California. He later moved into computational science and management at the LLNL before joining Los Alamos in 2006 as principal associate director for its weapons programmes. That role involved him overseeing the safety, reliability and performance of the US nuclear deterrent, which is the lab's main mission.Holds bachelor’s degrees in mathematics and physics from Columbia Union College.
McMillan has nearly 30 years of scientific and management experience in weapons science and stockpile certification, hands-on experience in both experimental physics and computational science, and demonstrated success at balancing mission performance with security and safety.
McMillan led the Laboratory’s weapons physics organization from 2006 to 2011. Before joining Los Alamos, McMillan served in a variety of research and management positions at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in California.
Has been awarded two Department of Energy Awards of Excellence. Married, with three college-age children. Avid photographer and accomplished musician, playing piano, organ, and recorder. Continues to perform in a baroque chamber music ensemble.

Famous Quotes

"I have great optimism for the future," said McMillan. "This is a complicated time but also a time of great opportunity for the program, an opportunity to work with the Administration to shape tomorrow’s nuclear security complex while effectively managing the nuclear stockpile along the way. The service we provide to the nation is as important now as it ever was."
Summing up his philosophy on how science is best managed, McMillan quoted from the collection of Lewis Thomas essays, Lives of a Cell: "What [research] needs is for the air to be made right. If you want a bee to make honey, you do not issue protocols on solar navigation or carbohydrate chemistry, you put him together with other bees . . . and you do what you can to arrange the general environment around the hive. If the air is right, the science will come in its own season, like pure honey."
McMillan also serves as President and CEO of Los Alamos National Security, LLC, the Laboratory’s managing and operating contractor.[4]

About Los Alamos

Los Alamos is one of three US nuclear-weapons labs – the other two being the LLNL and Sandia National Laboratories in New Mexico. McMillan's responsibilities as head of Los Alamos will, however, go beyond developing and maintaining nuclear weapons. The lab also operates a national high-magnetic-field laboratory and works with other institutions including the Joint Genome Institute, which tackles genome mapping, DNA sequencing and related information science. Los Alamos also runs a research programme in systems-biology modelling. "The lab is helping prevent pandemics, detecting and disabling improvised explosive devices, and developing alternative energy sources," McMillan told physicsworld.com. "Today it leads research breakthroughs in areas as diverse as contributing to a possible AIDS vaccine and to fuel cell energy storage developments that could cut costs and speed commercialization. One of my goals is to build on these strengths to enhance the lab for the future."

External Sources

  • Testimony of Dr. Charles F. McMillan , Laboratory Director
Los Alamos National Laboratory Before the Senate Committee on Armed Services Subcommittee on Strategic Forces April 18, 2012 .http://www.armed-services.senate.gov/statemnt/2012/04%20April/McMillan%2004-18-12.pdf
  • Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE)

References

  1. ^ Frank Munger (26 May 2011). "More than 150 applicants for Los Alamos job; choice of McMillan lauded"Knox news. Retrieved 27 May 2011.
  2. ^ Frank Munger (26 May 2011). "More than 150 applicants for Los Alamos job; choice of McMillan lauded"Knox news. Retrieved 27 May 2011.
  3. ^ K. Roark (26 May 2011). "New director named at Los Alamos Lab"UC Newsroom. Retrieved 3 Oct 2011.
  4. ^ http://www.lanl.gov/about/leadership-governance/director.php


File:Charles F. McMillan - 10th director of Los Alamos National Laboratory on June 1, 2011..jpg

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English: McMillan has nearly 30 years of scientific and management experience in weapons science and stockpile certification, hands-on experience in both experimental physics and computational science, and demonstrated success at balancing mission performance with security and safety. McMillan led the Laboratory’s weapons physics organization from 2006 to 2011. Before joining Los Alamos, McMillan served in a variety of research and management positions at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in California.
English: yadaa yadaa hi dharmasya glaanirbhavati bhaarata. Abhyutthaanam.h adharmasya tadaatmaanM sRRijaamyaham.h..
Bhagavad Gita, Chapter IV, Verse 7.
Date 26 October 2012, 23:53:05
Source Own work
Author Mamtapolicedhody
Los Alamos National Laboratory was established in 1943.NOTE ON FIRST DIRECTOR - Julius Robert Oppenheimer (April 22, 1904 – February 18, 1967) was an American theoretical physicist and professor of physics at the University of California, Berkeley. Along with Enrico Fermi, he is often called the "father of the atomic bomb" for his role in the Manhattan Project, the World War II project that developed the first nuclear weapons.The first atomic bomb was detonated on July 16, 1945, in the Trinity test in New Mexico; Oppenheimer remarked later that it brought to mind words from the Bhagavad Gita: "Now, I am become Death, the destroyer of worlds."

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As of 2010, Nirmal Chander Vij is the Chairman of the National Disaster Management Authority, with an equivalent rank of a Union Minister of State.

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File:General Nirmal Chander Vij was the 21st Indian Chief of Army Staff.jpg

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English: Vij served as the Major General, General Staff at the Western Command in Chandimandir, Chandigarh (Punjab) and during the 1999 Kargil War, he served as the Director General Military Operations (DGMO). During this time he was criticized for appearing, in his professional capacity before a group of senior BJP leaders, and briefing them. In 1999, he broke the military tradition to brief members of the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) on operations in Kargil, when he was Director General of Military Operations. For his services as the DGMO, he was awarded the Uttam Yudh Seva Medal. He was involved in the planning and execution of Operation Khukri - to extricate trapped Indian peacekeeping troops in Sierra Leone. The formations he has commanded include a mountain brigade involved in active counter- insurgency operations in the north east, an elite RAPID (Reorganised Army Plains Infantry Division) unit, the Strike Corps based at Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh and the IV Corps based at Tezpur, Assam. General Vij retired on 31 January 2005, after completing more than 42 years service. As of 2010, he is the Chairman of the National Disaster Management Authority, with an equivalent rank of a Union Minister of State.
Date
18 October 2012, 05:21:46
Source
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Author
As of 2010, Nirmal Chander Vij is the Chairman of the National Disaster Management Authority, with an equivalent rank of a Union Minister of State.

http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Nirmal_Chander_Vij&oldid=518510096






























Michael Anastasio (born 1948) was the director of the Los Alamos National Laboratoryand president of the Los Alamos National Security LLC, the company that operates the laboratory.[1] He is the former director of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The University of California Board of Regents appointed Michael R. Anastasio the director of LLNL on June 4, 2002. He started on July 1, 2002. In 2005 he became the president of the Los Alamos National Security LLC, and became the director of the Los Alamos National Laboratory on June 1, 2006. During his directorship at Lawrence Livermore, the laboratory won 25 R&D 100 Awards and maintained its world-class leadership position in high-performance computing and its application to global climate modeling.




The W88 is a warhead used by the Navy on the Trident II missile. The W-88 is a miniaturized, tapered thermonuclear warhead. It is the United States' most sophisticated strategic thermonuclear weapon. In the US arsenal, the W-88 warhead is mated to the D-5 submarine-launched ballistic missile carried aboard the Trident nuclear submarine. The Los Alamos National Laboratory program to develop the W88 warhead for the Trident II 5D missile was completed in 1989. The W88 is one of two types of warheads on US submarine launched missiles. There are now nearly 400 W88 warheads in the stockpile and more than 3,000 W76s, the other warhead on US submarine launched missiles.

During the investigation into alleged Chinese espionage against the US nuclear weapons programs, it was disclosed that modern US hydrogen bombs use a non-spherical core. This is apparently a key technique in building miniaturized warheads. Two-point detonation is used on warheads like the W88. The W-88 has a non-spherical primary [the fission atomic trigger], a configuration first used in the W47. The primary is situated in the nosecone's narrow forward end [an arrangement used previously in some but not all American warheads]. The lithium fuel of the secondary has a spherical shape.

The deployment of W88 warheads on the Trident D-5 missiles was slowed by the closure of the Rocky Flats plutonium processing plant in November 1989 due to safety and environmental concerns. At the time, independent unofficial esimates were that only 400 Mk 88s had been produced before the plant closed, versus the originally planned. Rear Admiral Raymond G. Jones Jr. has stated that there are enough Mark-5/W88 warheads to outfit four east-coast Trident submarines, with the remainder loaded 100-kiloton Mark-4/W76 warheads. This would imply that a total of nearly 800 of the W88 weapons had been produced, with each submarined loaded with 192 warheads [8 each on 24 missiles].

The FY2003 NNSA budget request provided for adding as many as 10 new W88 warheads to the stockpile per year beginning as early as 2007. In 2003 Los Alamos delivered the first certifiable W88 pit from the interim pit production capability. This was the first certifiable pit made by the United States since the shut down of Rocky Flats in 1989.

In 1990 a panel established by the House Armed Services Committee and chaired by Dr. Sydney Drell of Stanford found that there was a significant danger that a W-88 warhead would detonate by accident. There were three serious design issues with the W88, according to the "Report of the Panel on Nuclear Weapons Safety," written by Sidney Drell, John Foster, and Charles Townes for the House Armed Services Committee, completed in December 1990.



W88

The W88 is a warhead used by the Navy on the Trident II missile. The W-88 is a miniaturized, tapered thermonuclear warhead. It is the United States' most sophisticated strategic thermonuclear weapon. In the US arsenal, the W-88 warhead is mated to the D-5 submarine-launched ballistic missile carried aboard the Trident nuclear submarine. The Los AlamosNational Laboratory program to develop the W88 warhead for the Trident II 5D missile was completed in 1989. The W88 is one of two types of warheads on US submarine launched missiles. There are now nearly 400 W88 warheads in the stockpile and more than 3,000 W76s, the other warhead on US submarine launched missiles.
During the investigation into alleged Chinese espionage against the US nuclear weapons programs, it was disclosed that modern US hydrogen bombs use a non-spherical core. This is apparently a key technique in building miniaturized warheads. Two-point detonation is used on warheads like the W88. The W-88 has a non-spherical primary [the fission atomic trigger], a configuration first used in theW47. The primary is situated in the nosecone's narrow forward end [an arrangement used previously in some but not all American warheads]. The lithium fuel of the secondary has a spherical shape.
The deployment of W88 warheads on the Trident D-5 missiles was slowed by the closure of theRocky Flats plutonium processing plant in November 1989 due to safety and environmental concerns. At the time, independent unofficial esimates were that only 400 Mk 88s had been produced before the plant closed, versus the originally planned. Rear Admiral Raymond G. Jones Jr. has stated that there are enough Mark-5/W88 warheads to outfit four east-coast Trident submarines, with the remainder loaded 100-kiloton Mark-4/W76 warheads. This would imply that a total of nearly 800 of the W88 weapons had been produced, with each submarined loaded with 192 warheads [8 each on 24 missiles].
The FY2003 NNSA budget request provided for adding as many as 10 new W88 warheads to the stockpile per year beginning as early as 2007. In 2003 Los Alamos delivered the first certifiable W88 pit from the interim pit production capability. This was the first certifiable pit made by the United States since the shut down of Rocky Flats in 1989.
In 1990 a panel established by the House Armed Services Committee and chaired by Dr. Sydney Drell of Stanford found that there was a significant danger that a W-88 warhead would detonate by accident. There were three serious design issues with the W88, according to the "Report of the Panel on Nuclear Weapons Safety," written by Sidney Drell, John Foster, and Charles Townes for the House Armed Services Committee, completed in December 1990.
  • First, the warheads on the D-5 are mounted in close proximity to the rocket motor, arranged in a circle around the missile's third stage. The warheads on other American ballistic missiles are mounted on a platform which provides some insulating material between the warheads and a fuel fire. The rocket motors use a highly volatile 1.1 class propellant, which can both burn and explode [it is almost impossible to detonate a 1.3 class propellant].
  • Second, W88 designers had to choose whether to use the traditional high explosives [HE], or the safer insensitive high explosive [IHE], which possess a unique insensitivity to certain abnormal environments, such as fires, crashes or unexpected impacts. Unlike the conventional explosive, IHE is extremely unlikely to detonate in any of these crises. It also is not used in the D-5 missile system.
  • Third, the Drell Panel was also concerned that in choosing the plutonium pit in the W88 warhead did not include Fire Resistant Pit which includes materials which can withstand temperatures of 1000 degrees Fahrenheit [however, since rocket fuel burns at 2000 degrees Fahrenheit, the Fire Resistant Pit isn't much safer than a regular pit when used in a warhead carried by a missile].
The Navy implemented Drell Panel recommendations to change Trident-II missile handling procedures, and the Department of Energy continues to improve the three-dimensional computer codes to predict warhead behavior in abnormal environments. The W88/Trident-II system was included in a Special Stockpile Improvement Review undertaken by the Nuclear Weapons Council.
Flight tests involve the actual dropping or launching of a weapon from which the nuclear components have been removed. DOE uses specially designed equipment-referred to as telemetry packages-to test the integration and functioning of the weapon's electrical and mechanical subsystems. Only 3 W88 stockpile flight tests (of the 12 planned) were conducted during the 4-year period from fiscal year 1992 through 1995. Flight testing of W88 warheads taken from the stockpile was halted for more than 1 year because an important safety study required for disassembly and inspection of the warhead at DOE's Pantex plant lacked approval. A Nuclear Explosive Safety Study is required for each weapon type before DOE's Pantex Plant can disassemble and inspect a weapon selected for testing. Without disassembly and inspection capability, surveillance tests, including flight tests of sample warheads from the stockpile (the nuclear components must be removed and replaced by the telemetry equipment), cannot be conducted. DOE and national laboratory officials were not concerned about the reliability of the W88 warhead because they have collected considerable data over the past few years by testing W88 warheads that had never been placed in the stockpile. Because the W88 warhead is a relatively new weapon, DOE officials believe that the information from these "new material" tests provides good reliability data.
During the mid-1990s the W88 warhead was considered by DOE to be of concern in relation to nonnuclear systems laboratory tests. These tests involve testing the nonnuclear systems-such as the radar systems and fuzes-in the weapon to detect defects due to handling, aging, manufacturing, or design. DOE officials said the Department should have conducted about 28 laboratory tests, but over during the 4-year period from fiscal year 1992 through 1995, only 15 (or 54 percent) tests were performed. According to DOE and national laboratory officials, the tests were not conducted because of the absence of an approved safety study at Pantex.
In 1999 it was reported that China had received secret design information for the most modern U.S. nuclear warhead-the W88 warhead, which sits atop the submarine-launched Trident II ballistic missile, and un-named US officials said "the top suspect is an American scientist working at a U.S. Department of Energy weapons laboratory." Edward Curran, the Energy Department's new counterintelligence director, said that "Department labs 'have the best computers and the smartest scientists in the world . . . without a question they are the No. 1 target' for foreign countries trying to steal U.S. technology." On 09 March 1999 Wen Ho Lee, a Chinese-American computer scientist who worked at the Los Alamos National Laboratory in New Mexico, was fired by the United States Energy department on suspicion of stealing nuclear secrets.
The abrupt closure of the Rocky Flats Plant in 1989 stopped production of W88 pits before sufficient pits were produced to meet the stockpile surveillance requirements for the projected 20-year design life of the W88 warhead. A pit is the fissile core of a nuclear weapon's physics package. In the near term, DOE's Pit Manufacturing and Certification Campaign is focused mainly on W88 pit manufacturing and certification and planning for a Modern Pit Facility. However, in addition to meeting the W88 surveillance requirements, the NNSA is committed "to reestablishing and maintaining sufficient levels of production to support requirements for the safety, reliability, and performance of United States nuclear weapons" as delineated in the January 26, 1996, START II Treaty Ratification Text.
As of 2001 the United States was the only nuclear weapons state that cannot produce plutonium pits for its weapons. Milestones continued to slip for production and certification of a plutonium pit for a W88 warhead at the interim Los Alamos TA-55 facility. Conceptual design work for an adequate long-term facility continues to be delayed.
Production and certification of plutonium pits remain congressional interest items. For the FY2002 pit manufacturing and certification campaign, the House Armed Services Committee recommended the budget request of $128.5 million, including $122.5 million for W88 pit manufacturing and certification, $4.0 million to begin the task of understanding manufacturing and certification requirements for other stockpile warheads, and $2.0 million to support pre-conceptual design activities in support of a modern pit facility. Only one W88 warhead surveillance pit remained for destructive testing purposes but good progress was being made toward establishing a limited manufacturing capability at Los Alamos National Laboratory, with production of certifiable pits scheduled to begin in fiscal year 2003. In contrast, W88 pit certification has slipped from fiscal year 2007 to fiscal year 2009, with no commitment to meeting the latter date. This reflected both the difficulty of certifying a pit with extremely high confidence in the absence of nuclear testing, as well as the potential national security consequences of a failure in this area.
In the absence of nuclear testing, the fabrication and certification of pits that meet quality requirements for the nuclear weapon stockpile war reserve remains a major challenge. The W88 Pit Manufacturing and Certification Integrated Project Plan, March 2001, has identified approximately 18,000 activities and 350 individual work packages to complete the pit production and certification task reflecting the magnitude of this major challenge.
The goals of the campaign are to:
  • Manufacture a certifiable W88 pit by the end of FY 2003;
  • Establish a limited (10 pit/year) production capability for W88 pits by 2007 to meet the programmatic needs of the DoD;
  • Establish the certification requirements and plan and implement the activities required to certify a W88 pit built at LANL without underground nuclear testing by FY 2009, with a goal of achieving an earlier date of FY 2007;
  • Reestablish the capability to manufacture all pit types within the stockpile; and
  • Plan the design and construction of a Modern Pit Facility to support long term pit manufacturing.
The early years of the pit project are dominated by manufacturing process development for the W88 pit. During this period, certification tests are focused on examining fundamental plutonium properties and developing an approach to certification without nuclear testing. Following successful completion of process development pits and establishment of the requisite quality assurance infrastructure, the first certifiable pit will be fabricated and followed by the fabrication of qualification and production pits. During the ensuing qualification period, certifiable pits will be manufactured at LANL for use in experiments to demonstrate equivalence with Rocky Flats produced pits. A minimum set of certification experiments to determine product equivalency have been identified.
Development pits will be manufactured while manufacturing processes are defined and qualified. As a part of reestablishing the capability to manufacture war reserve pits, the production controls and quality infrastructure necessary to meet quality requirements and consistency of product will be established. Once completed, the first Qualification Pit will be manufactured as a "certifiable" pit. Further Qualification Pits will be manufactured to support engineering and physics testing for certification of the manufactured pits.
To confirm nuclear performance of the W88 pit without underground nuclear testing, the W88 Pit Manufacturing and Certification Integrated Project Plan (W88 PMCIPP), March 2001, identifies the required engineering tests, physics experiments, dynamic experiments and integral experiments. A thorough peer review of the plan and activities required for W88 pit certification and manufacturing will be performed. Engineering tests will be identified and scheduled for use in evaluating: the intrinsic radiation signature. plutonium hydriding structural response to environments delineated in the Stockpile-to-Target-Sequence including deployment and flight thermal and mechanical environments, pressure effects, and long-term material compatibility Physics laboratory experiments will be planned and scheduled to confirm that Los Alamos National Laboratory plutonium fabrication techniques produce equivalent compositions, microstructures and mechanical properties when compared to Rocky Flats manufactured material. Data from these material property experiments will be used to confirm consistent production results; to improve physics models used in ASC simulation codes; and to help predict and compare military performance. Integral tests will include explosively driven experiments to extrapolate material performance models in more realistic weapons environments, provide data to compare Rocky Flats material properties to LANL material properties, and to assist in development of advanced diagnostic techniques for more complex follow-on experiments. Additional integral dynamic tests will use actual geometry experiments to quantify performance differences that may result from differences in manufacturing between Rocky Flats and LANL. These experiments will also be the principal basis for computational ties to the prior nuclear test database.
Pit manufacturing and certification activities not specifically supporting the W88 are conducted in the third element of the restructured campaign. These activities include identifying and scheduling the reestablishment of key manufacturing technologies for the W87 and B61-7 pits which, together with the W88, span technical variations of pits within the stockpile. This activity also provides technology development spinoff for the Modern Pit Facility.
The limited manufacturing capacity being established to support the W88 requirements is insufficient to meet manufacturing requirements for the long term support of the stockpile. In addition, the capability to manufacture pits is essential to replace pits that are destructively evaluated as part of surveillance activities or to replace pits that have exhibited unacceptable aging effects. Planning for a modern pit facility with the capability to meet requirements is essential to establish a viable readiness posture. The conceptual design scheduled to begin in early FY 2002, subsequent to a critical decision validating the mission need, will be postponed. The FY 2003 budget request would allow for continued planning activities.
In mid-2003 the Department of Energy's (DOE) Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) successfully made the first nuclear weapons "pit" in 14 years that meets specifications for use in the U.S. stockpile. The plutonium pit, called Qual-1 because it was built with and fully met qualified processes, is for the W88 warhead, which is carried on the Trident II D5 Submarine-Launched Cruise Missile, a cornerstone of the US nuclear deterrent. The six-year effort at LANL's plutonium processing facility restores a US capability lost when DOE's Rocky Flats Plant shut down in 1989. DOE identified LANL as the site to make nuclear weapon pits through the 1996 Stockpile Stewardship and Management Environmental Impact Statement.
Under the W88 Pit Manufacturing and Certification Integrated Project Plan, the major focus of FY 2004 activities is preparation for integral experiments in FY 2005. The experiments have been re-baselined to support the acceleration of W88 pit certification from FY 2009 to FY 2007. Following passage of the FY 2003 appropriation,this schedule will be reviewed. FY 2004 efforts will focus on the following activities to support pit certification.Engineering tests will be identified and scheduled for use in evaluating: the intrinsic radiation signature; plutonium hydriding; structural response to environments delineated in the Stockpile-to-Target-Sequence including deployment and flight thermal and mechanical environments;pressure effects; and long-term material compatibility. Physics laboratory experiments will be planned and scheduled to confirm that LANL plutonium fabrication techniques produce equivalent compositions,microstructures and mechanical properties when compared to Rocky Flats manufactured material. Data from these material property experiments will be used to confirm consistent production results; to improve physics models used in Advanced Simulation and Computing simulation codes; and to help predict and confirm military performance. Preparations for two major integral tests will be finalized in FY 2004. The tests will include explosively driven experiments to extrapolate material performance models in more realistic weapons environments, provide data to compare Rocky Flats material properties to LANL material properties,and to assist in development of advanced diagnostic techniques for more complex follow-on experiments. The increase in FY 2004 funding reflects increased work scope on subcritical and dynamic experiments to prepare for additional integral dynamic tests which will quantify performance differences that may result from differences in manufacturing processes between Rocky Flats and LANL. These experiments will also be the principal basis for computational ties to the prior nuclear test database.
The United States learned about the Chinese theft of the W-88 Trident D-5 warhead information, as well as about the theft of information regarding several other thermonuclear weapons, in 1995. A "walk-in" approached the Central Intelligence Agency outside the PRC and provided an official PRC document classified "Secret" that contained specific design information on the W-88 Trident D-5, and technical information on other thermonuclear warheads. The CIA later determined that the "walk-in" was directed by the PRC intelligence services. Nonetheless, CIA and other Intelligence Community analysts that reviewed the document concluded that it contained U.S. warhead design information.
The PRC has the infrastructure and technical ability to use elements of the stolen U.S. warhead design information in the PLA's next generation of ther-monuclear weapons. If the PRC attempted to deploy an exact replica of the US W-88 Trident D-5 warhead, it would face considerable technical challenges. However, the PRC could build modern thermonuclear warheads based on stolen US design information, including the stolen W-88 design information, using processes similar to those developed or available in a modern aerospace or precision guided munitions industry. 

MAMTA DHODY BORN 29-1-1964 - AGE-48. ROYAL RAWALPINDI ROOTS - FAMILY POSTED BY BRITISH ARMY IN 1944 TO 29TH ORDNANCE DEPOT IN KHAMARIA .JABALPUR , AS GRANDFATHER SHRI NATHU SHAH DHODY WAS ACCOUNTS MANAGER ,MILITARY CADRE WITH EXTRA CHARGE OF USA ,INTELLIGENCE.FATHER SHRI JAGDISH CHANDRA DHODY CONTINUED INTELLIGENCE WORK WITH INDEPENDANT INDIA AND INSURANCE EMPLOYMENT -NATIONALIZED AS UIIC ON 18-2-1972.

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