Friday, April 11, 2008


Mannlicher-Carcano rifle

Lee Harvey Oswald's Mannlicher-Carcano rifle, in the US National Archives
Lee Harvey Oswald's Mannlicher-Carcano rifle, in the US National Archives
Masterboy - Land of Dreaming
03:27 From: RonTaboga
Views: 179,146

Masterboy - Feel The Heat Of The Night


"That in June, 1984, the Indian Army mounted an operation

known as "Blue Star Operation" by which the Armed Force

personnel entered the Golden Temple Complex at Amritsar to

flush out the armed terrorists. That operation resulted in

loss of life and property as well as damage to the Akal

Takht at the Golden Temple. It has offended the religious

feelings of some members of the Sikh community.

Resentment was expressed even by some of the

Sikh employees of the Delhi Police posted for Prime Minister's security.

The accused persons are Sikhs by faith. They had been expressing their resentment openly, holding the Prime Minister responsible for the action taken at Amritsar. They became

PG NO 138
to a criminal conspiracy to murder Mrs. Indira


Mrs. Indira Gandhi,the Prime Minister, had returned from

an official tour of Orissa in the evening of October 30,

1984. The day followed was Wednesday. In the early hours of

every Wednesday, Mrs. Indira Gandhi used to meet people in groups. So it was called "Darshan Day". Unfortunately, shE did not adhere to that usual programme. The "Darshan" was

cancelled because of another engagement. That engagement was

with well-known actor and writer Peter Ustinov. His crew was
to record an interview with Mrs. Indira Gandhi for Irish

They were waiting at Bungalow No. 1, Akbar Road,

the home office of the Prime Minister. Bungalow No.1,

Safdarjung Road was the official residence of the Prime

Minister. The two buildings are connected by a narrow

cemented pathway. They are located practically in one

campus, but separated by a sentry gate which is known as the

"TMC Gate". This is the place where hidden hands sent shock

waves to the Nation. Mrs. Indira Gandhi at about 9.10 a.m.

emerged from her house with her loyal assistants and a

faithful servant. Immediately) behind her was Head Constablc

Narayan Singh (PW-9) holding an umbrella to protect her

against the Sun. Rameshwar Dayal (PW- 10) an Assistant Sub-

Inspector, Nathu Ram (PW-64), her personal attendant and

R.K. Dhawan, Special Assistant were closely following Mrs.

Gandhi. All were on the cemented pathway. Mrs. Gandhi was at

the head of the entourage. She was approaching the TMC gate

where Beant Singh, SI was on the left side while Satwant

Singh, Constable was on the right side. They had managed to

exchanged his duty with S.I. Jai Narain (PW-7). Satwant

Singh ought to be at Beat No. 4. He, however, managed to get

TMC sentry booth by misrepresenting that he was suffering

from dysentry. He was given that place since it was near the

latrine. Beant Singh was armed with his service revolver

while Satwant Singh had SAF Carbine. When Mrs. Gandhi

reached near the TMC gate, Beant Singh opened fire from his

carbine. Beant Singh Fired five rounds and Satwant Singh

released 25 bullets at Mrs. Gandhi. Then and there Mrs.

Gandhi fell down never to get up. She was immediately rushed

to the All India Institute of Medical Science (AIIMS). There

a team of doctors fought their losing battle of save the

life of the slain Prime Minister.

Rameshwar Dayal (PW-10) who was following Mrs. Gandhi

also received bullet injuries as a result of the shots fired

by the accused. At the spot of the incident, the two assains

PG NO 139

are alleged to have thrown their arms and said "I have done

what I have to do. Now you do what you have to do." The

personnel of the Indo Tibetan Boarder Police (ITBP) pounced

on them and took them off to the guard room. What happened

inside the guard room is not on the record. The fact,

however, remains that both the assassins had been shot by

the ITBP personnel. They were soon removed to the hospital

where Beant Singh was pronounced dead and Satwant Singh was

found to be critically injured. Satwant Singh survived after

15 days' treatment. He is accused No. 1 in this case. Balbir

Singh and Kehar Singh are the other two accused. They are

said to be parties to the conspiracy to eliminate Mrs.

Indira Gandhi. Balbir Singh was an S.I. posted in the

security at the residence of the Prime Minister. Kehar Singh

was an Assistant in the Directorate General of Supply and

Disposal, New Delhi. He is related to S.I. Beant Singh. After the

investigation, the charge-sheet was filed

against the three appellants. They were accused of offences

under Section 120-B, 109 and 34 read with Section 302 of the

IPC and also of substantive offances under Sections 302 and

307 of the IPC and Section 27, 54 and 59 of the Arms Act. It

may be mentioned that the report also names Beant Singh as

one of the accused but since he had died, the charges

against him were said to have abated.

In due course, the accused were committed to take their

trial in the Court of Session. In the meanwhile, the High

Court of Delhi issued two notifications. By one

notification, the High Court directed the trial of the case

shall he held in the Central Jail, Tihar according to law.

By another notification, the High Court directed that "the

case be tried by Shri Mahesh Chandra, Additional Sessions

Judge, New Delhi." In pursuance of the above notifications,

the accused were tried in Central Jail, Tihar. The learned

trial Judge found the accused guilty of all the charges

framed against them and sentenced them as earlier stated."

PG NO 32

"so well for the last forty years. There is yet another

serious consideration. Beant Singh (deceased) and accused

Satwant Singh were posted on the security duty of the

Prime Minister to protect her from any intruder or from any

attack from outside and, therefore, if they themselves

resort to this kind of offence, there appears to be no

reason or no mitigating circumstance for consideration on

the question of sentence. Additionally, an unarmed lady was

attacked by these two persons with a series of bullets and

it has been found that a number of bullets entered her body.31 IN TOTAL

The manner in which mercilessly she was attacked by these

two persons on whom confidence was reposed to give her

protection repels any consideration of reduction of

sentence. In this view of the matter, even the conspirator

who inspired the persons who actually acted does not deserve

any leniency in the matter of sentence. The death sentence

awarded by the trial Court and maintained by the High Court

appears to be just and proper. [115F-ll6B]

26. So far as appearance of falcon and offering of Ardas

is concerned, admittedly appearance of a falcon is

considered, by the Sikh Community, as a sacred thing as

falcon is supposed to be a representative of the Guru and

if, therefore, this accused and Beant Singh offered Ardas

nothing could be inferred from this alone. [105C]

2. In the instant case, the crime charged was not simply

the murdering of the human being, but it was the crime of

assassination of the duly elected Prime Minister of the

country. The motive for the crime was not personal, but the

consequences of the action taken by the Government in the

exercise of constitutional powers and duties. In our

democratic republic, no person who is duly constituted shall

be eliminated by privy conspiracies.

The 'Operation Blue Star' was not directed to cause damage to Akal Takht. Nor it

was intended to hurt the religious feelings of Sikhs. The

decision was taken by the responsible and responsive

Government in the national interest. The late Prime Minister

Smt. Indira Gandhi was, however, made the target for the

consequences of the decision.

The security guards who were duty-bound to protect the Prime Minister at the cost of

their lives, themselves became the assassins. All values and

all ideals in life; all norms and obligations were thrown to

the winds. It was a betrayal of the worst order. It was the

most foul and senseless assassination. The preparations for

and the execution of this egregious crime do deserve the

dread sentence of the law.

The allegations in the charge-sheet against this accused

if summarised are: that Balbir Singh like the other accused

persons has expressed his resentment openly holding Smt.

Indira Gandhi responsible for the 'Bluestar Operation'. He

was planning to commit the murder of Smt. Gandhi and he

discussed these matters with Beant Singh deceased who had

similar plan to commit the murder. He also shared his

intention and prompted accused Satwant Singh to commit the

murder of Smt. Gandhi and finally discussed the matter with

him on Oct. 30, 1984. In the first week of September, 1984 a

falcon (baaz) happened to sit on the tree near the Reception

gate of the Prime Minister's house in the afternoon at about

1.30 P.M. Balbir Singh spotted the falcon and called Beant

Singh there. Both of them agreed that it has brought a

message of the Tenth Guru of Sikhs that they should do

something by way of revenge of the 'Bluestar Operation'.

Thereafter they offered 'Ardas'.

Then is the question of sentence which was argued to

some extent. But it must be clearly understood that it is

not a case where X is killed by Y on some personal ground or

personal vendatta. The person killed is a lady and no less

than the Prime Minister of this Country who was the elected

leader of the people. In our country we have adopted

accepted a system wherein change of the leader is

permissible by and not by bullet. The act of the accused not

only takes away the life of popular leader but also

undermines our system which has been working so well for the

last forty years. There is yet another serious

consideration. Beant Singh and Satwant Singh are persons who

were posted on the security duty of the Prime Minister. They

are posted there to protect her from any intruder or from

any attack from outside and therefore if they themselves

resort to this kind of offence. there appears to be no

reason or no mitigating circumstance for consideration on

the question of sentence. Additionally, an unarmed lady was

attacked by these two persons with a series of bullets and

it has been found that a number of bullets entered her body.

The manner in which mercilessly she was attacked by these

two persons on whom the confidence was reposed to give her

PG NO 116

protection repels any consideration of reduction of

sentence. In this view of the matter, even the conspirator

who inspired the persons who actually acted does not

deserves any leniency in the matter of sentence. In our

opinion, the sentence awarded by the trial court and

maintained by the High Court appears to be just and proper."

Muslim perform the "stoning of the devil ritual"
3 of 7
Pilgrims perform the ritual "stoning of the devil" at Jamarat near Mecca. Pilgrims throw pebbles at stone pillars representing the devil.

YUSUFALI: Remember thy Lord inspired the angels (with the message): "I am with you: give firmness to the Believers: I will instil terror into the hearts of the Unbelievers: smite ye above their necks and smite all their finger-tips off them."

PICKTHAL: When thy Lord inspired the angels, (saying): I am with you. So make those who believe stand firm. I will throw fear into the hearts of those who disbelieve. Then smite the necks and smite of them each finger.

SHAKIR: When your Lord revealed to the angels: I am with you, therefore make firm those who believe. I will cast terror into the hearts of those who disbelieve. Therefore strike off their heads and strike off every fingertip of them.”


“An Islamic state is established with the sole purpose of establishing the Deen of Allah Ta’ala on Allah’s earth. The prime object is to entrench Islam in the land. Should any individual’s personal interests be in conflict with this objective, preference will obviously be given to the Deen. The Islamic State is established for the Deen, and not for any particular individual or group. This will apply to even Muslim citizens. Should their personal ideals be in conflict with that of Islam, the ideals of Islam would reign superior.While the non-Muslim citizens do have the right to practice their religion in Daarul Islam, this is subject to certain conditions. The need for these conditions arises from the fact that, should they be granted absolute freedom, some of their actions would come in conflict with the objectives of the State. Some of these conditions will be discussed below.The Jizyah which the non-Muslim citizens of Daarul Islam (an Islamic State) pay does not grant them “complete freedom of religion” but rather guarantees them three rights:

Security of life: It is the duty of the Islamic State to guarantee the sanctity of life.

Security of property and honour. Similarly the Islamic State has to provide security to their property. No one has the right to usurp their wealth. In the same light, no one may attack their honour; e.g. no one may backbite or slander the non-Muslim citizen. Retribution will be taken from anyone violating their rights.

Their right to practice their religion, subject to conditions.


While the conditions under which non-Muslims are granted citizenship of Daarul Islam are many, at this juncture we refer to only those that are relative to our discussion.

Some of these conditions are:

They may practice their religion within the privacy of their homes

They may not build any new churches, synagogues etc.

Should any church, synagogue etc. be destroyed or require repair, they may repair or rebuild such buildings.

They may not celebrate any religious festivals in public

They may not display in public any item having particular religious purport, e.g. bible, Cross, statue, etc.

Such items should also be removed from the exterior of their places of worship i.e. No idol, Cross etc may be displayed on the outside of their places of worship.

They may not ring the church bell, nor read their religious books so loud that it is audible in public.

They may not invite towards their religion.

The reason for these conditions is that the purpose of Daarul Islam is to entrench Islam on the earth. Thus the salient features in religion must only be that of Islam. No features of other religions may be observable in public.

It is only when Muslims firmly enforced such laws that Islam reigned superior on earth. Thus the object for which Daarul Islam was established had been achieved.

Early in Islamic history, the khalifas were mindful of enforcing these laws, hence Islam was the only religion to be seen in public. The result of this was that over the generations, non-Muslims entered into Islam in droves There was absolutely no forced conversions, but the air was filled only with Islam. The atmosphere was only of the Deen of Allah, as it rightfully aught to be. Thus, while freedom of choice existed, the kuffaar voluntarily entered into Islam in such large numbers that Islam soon conquered the major lands of the civilized world of that time.

May Allah Ta’ala in particular reward the two Umars, Ameerul Mu’mineen Hazrat Umar bin Khattaab (Radiyallahu anhu) and Hazrat Umar bin Abdul Aziz (rahimahullah), for they were vigilant in enforcing these essential rules of the state. Thus Islam flourished under their leadership.

Regarding the conditions under which non-Muslims will be allowed to reside in an Islamic state, Ibn Taymiyyah writes that there exists a unanimous consensus of the fuqaha, and the entire Ummah on these conditions. He then mentions:

“And from amongst these conditions are those that are related to the kuffaar concealing the evils of their religion, and not exhibiting these evils. Examples of these are the prohibition of them displaying Khamr (wine), or the church bell or yoke; the prohibition of publicly celebrating their festivals and the like thereof. … Also, they may not expose any of the salient features of their religion. E.g. they may not raise their voices when reciting their scriptures.…..

Hazrat Umar (Radiyallahu anhu) and all the Muslims after him, including all the Ulama, are unanimous that the non-Muslims are prohibited from exposing in Daarul Islam (an Islamic state) anything that may be particularly associated with their religion. Particular emphasis was placed on the injunction that no feature of the mushrikeen (idol worshippers) should ever be displayed in Daarul Islam…. This was in obedience to Allah and His Rasool (Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam), and in conformity to the Quráan, while holding firm to the Sunnah of Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam)” (I’laa-us sunan Pg. 520 Vol. 12; Idaratul Qa’raan)

Some of the conditions under which the non-Muslims had willfully adopted citizenship of Daarul Islam, and which were proposed by Hazrat Umar (Radiyallahu anhu), are:

We will not sell liquor.

We will not display the Cross on our churches, or any other public place.

We will only ring our church bells softly, and only from within [and not outside] our churches.

We will not raise our voices during prayers.

We will not display the yoke at any public place.

We will not celebrate the festivals of Easter and Palm Sunday.

We will not call towards our religion.

(Al Mughni Vol. 10 pg. 606 as quoted in I’laa-us sunan pg. 520 vol. 12.)

When Abu Ubaida ib Jarraah (Radiyallahu anhu) conquered Shaam (Syria), he stipulated similar condition on the non-Muslim citizens as Hazrat Umar (Radiyallahu anhu) used to stipulate. The Christians thereafter requested to be allowed to celebrate one day of festivity within the year, in which they are allowed to display the Cross. Hazrat Abu Ubaida-tubnul Jarraah wrote to Hazrat Umar (Radiyallahu anhu), and received this reply:

“They may celebrate one day of festivity within every year. They may only display the Cross outside the city. As far as within the city, or the Muslim public, they may not display the Cross. This is only for this particular day. They may not display the cross on any other day. (Even outside the cities)” (I’laa-us sunan pg. 520 vol. 12)

Umar bin Abdul Aziz (rahimahullah) wrote to his governor such:

“Do not leave a cross exposed. Should you find one, demolish and efface it.” (I’laa-us sunan pg. 520 vol. 12; Idaratul Qur’aan)

These quotations bear ample testimony to the fact that religious symbols may not be publicly displayed in Daarul Islam.

Please refer to pages 751 to 756.web page 100 and 145..

Now it becomes clear as to why all the terrorism especially breaking of music systems have occurred in my house.Also refer to pages 738 to 778.As is evident from above account violence is supreme in Islam and the Koran does incite hatred.

During the Gulf War, Iraq hit Israel with thirty-nine Scud missiles, although Israel was not a member of the anti-Iraq coalition and was not involved in the fighting.

Christianity reveres Jerusalem not only for its role in the Old Testament but also for its significance in the life of Jesus. According to Biblical accounts, Jesus was brought to the city of Jerusalem not long after his birth and later in his life cleansed the Second Temple. The Cenacle, believed to be the site of Jesus' Last Supper, is located on Mount Zion in the same building that houses the Tomb of King David.[102][103] Another prominent Christian site in Jerusalem is Golgotha, the site of the crucifixion. The Gospel of John describes it as being located outside Jerusalem, but recent archaeological evidence suggests Golgotha is a short distance from the Old City walls, within the present-day confines of the city. The land currently occupied by the Church of the Holy Sepulchre is considered one of the top candidates for Golgotha and thus has been a Christian pilgrimage site for the past two thousand years.

The Western Wall is holy to the Jewish people because it is thought to be the only remnant of the Temple in Jerusalem and the one wall located closest to the Holy of Holies, the holiest site in Judaism. The Wall has become the holiest site accessible to Jews, since according to Jewish law entry to the Dome of the Rock, site of the Foundation Stone where the Holy of Holies was located during Temple times, together with the rest of the Temple Mount, is now forbidden under the pain of Karet (Divinely hastened death).

Jews have prayed at the Western Wall for hundreds of years, believing that the Divine Presence (Shekhinah) rests upon it and that the gate of heaven is situated directly above it. The tradition of placing a prayer written on a small piece of paper into a crack in the Wall goes back hundreds of years.

Included in the thrice daily Jewish prayers are fervent pleas that God return the Jewish exiles to the Land of Israel, rebuild the Temple (i.e., build the Third Temple), and bring the messianic era with the arrival of the Jewish Messiah.

Many Jews all over the world return to the wailing wall in their old age and spend their time in prayers.However due to Muslim control they cannot sound the Shofar.

The rock in the center of the Dome of the Rock is believed by Muslims to be the spot from which Muhammad ascended to God in Heaven, accompanied by the angel Gabriel. There he consulted with Moses and was given the (now obligatory) Islamic prayers before returning to Earth. (See Isra and Mi'raj.) A Qur'anic verse says that Muhammad took an instantaneous night journey on Buraq from al-Masjid al-Haram ("the sacred mosque", interpreted as being in Mecca) to al-Masjid al-Aqsa ("the farthest mosque", interpreted as being in Jerusalem.

In Judaism the stone is the site where Abraham fulfilled God's test to see if he would be willing to sacrifice his son Isaac (See Genesis 22:1-19). (Muslims believe that this event involved Abraham's other son Ishmael and occurred in the desert of Mina where millions of Muslims offer pilgrimage every year). There is some controversy among secular scholars about equating Mount Moriah (where Isaac's binding occurred according to the Biblical narrative), the Temple Mount, and the rock where Jacob dreamt about angels ascending and descending on a ladder to heaven (See Genesis 28:10-19); but for Orthodox Jews, there is no doubt that all these events occurred on this spot.

Situated inside the Holy of Holies, this was the rock upon which the Ark of the Covenant was placed in the First Temple. During the Second Temple, the stone was used by High Priest who offered up the incense and sprinkled the blood of the sacrifices on it during the Yom Kippur Service. Rabbinic legend also alleges that the entire world was created from this stone, hence the name אבן השתייה, Foundation Stone.

In Christianity, in addition to Jesus' actions in the temple, it is believed that during the time of the Byzantine Empire, the spot where the Dome was later constructed was where Constantine's mother built a small church, calling it the Church of St. Cyrus and St. John, later on enlarged and called the Church of the Holy Wisdom. The Dome is in the shape of a Byzantine martyrium, a structure intended for the housing and veneration of saintly relics and is an excellent example of middle Byzantine art.

The Byzantine art that covers the walls of the Dome of the Rock show that it belonged to the Church,and existed from 5th century B.C. to1453.If there is anyone who can lay claim to the place after the Jews it is the Christians with their commitment and devout prayers. The subject matter of monumental Byzantine art was primarily religious and imperial: the two themes are often combined, as in the portraits of later Byzantine emperors that decorated the interior of the sixth-century church of Hagia Sophia in Constantinople. These preoccupations are partly a result of the pious and autocratic nature of Byzantine society, and partly a result of its economic structure: the wealth of the empire was concentrated in the hands of the church and the imperial office, which therefore had the greatest opportunity to undertake monumental artistic commissions.

Religious art was, however, not limited to the monumental decoration of church interiors. One of the most important genres of Byzantine art was the icon, an image of Christ, the Virgin, or a saint, used as an object of veneration in Orthodox churches and private homes alike. Icons were more religious than aesthetic in nature: especially after the end of iconoclasm, they were understood to manifest the unique “presence” of the figure depicted by means of a “likeness” to that figure maintained through carefully maintained canons of representation.[9]

The illumination of manuscripts was another major genre of Byzantine art. The most commonly illustrated texts were religious, both scripture itself (particularly the Psalms) and devotional or theological texts (such as the Ladder of Divine Ascent of John Climacus or the homilies of Gregory of Nazianzus). Secular texts were also illuminated: important examples include the Alexander Romance and the history of John Skylitzes.

Icon worship was also prominent in Judiasm with its importance to the Menorah which was promised to them by the Pope. The menorah (Hebrew: מנורה), is a seven branched candelabrum lit by olive oil in the Tabernacle and the Temple in Jerusalem. The menorah is one of the oldest symbols of the Jewish people. It is said to symbolize the burning bush as seen by Moses on Mount Sinai (Exodus 25). The Torah states that God revealed the design for the menorah to Moses. A plant that grows in Israel called the moriah typically has seven branches and resembles a menorah, leading to the theory that it provided the inspiration for its design. A second theory to the origin of the design of the menorah is based on what is known about ancient Hebrew cosmology. According to this theory, the seven branches represent the seven heavenly bodies known at the time, namely the sun and the moon, as well as Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter and Saturn. The Jewish historian Josephus alludes to this in the Third Book of his Antiquities of the Jews. In it, he identifies what he interprets as Egyptian and Greek pagan influences on the design of the Tabernacle and its contents. He writes:

"...for if any one do without prejudice, and with judgment, look upon these things, he will find that they were every one made in way of imitation and representation of the universe...and as to the seven lamps upon the candlesticks, they referred to the course of the planets, of which that is the number.... (Antiq. 3.6.7; 3.7.7)".

A third theory is that the menorah originated as the tree of life symbolizing the mother goddess Asherah.[ The Coat of Arms of Israel shows a menorah surrounded by an olive branch on each side and the writing "ישראל" (Israel).

The Ark of the Covenant (ארון הברית in Hebrew: aron habrit) is described in the Hebrew Bible as a sacred container, wherein rested the stone tablets containing the Ten Commandments as well as other sacred Israelite objects. The Ark was built at the command of God, in accord with Moses' prophetic vision on Mount Sinai (Exodus 25:9-10). Its primary function was for God to communicate with Moses, also to give detailed instructions about what was good and what was forbidden, "from between the two cherubim" on the Ark's cover (Exodus 25:22). The Ark and its sanctuary were "the beauty of Israel" (Lamentations 2:1).

Currently, the Temple Mount is governed by the Waqf, the Supreme Muslim Religious Council. The site has been under Muslim control since the Muslim reconquest of the crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem in the 12th century. This state of affairs was not changed after the area containing the Temple Mount came under Jewish control after the Six-Day War, and Muslims retain almost complete autonomy over the site. However, the Temple Mount area is of great important to both Judaism and Islam, and ownership of the site continues to be a hotly contested point. The Temple Mount was open to the general public until September 2000, when Palestinians began throwing stones at Jewish worshipers after then-candidate for prime minister Ariel Sharon visited the area.

Following the onset of violence, the new Sharon government closed the Mount to non-Muslims, using checkpoints to control all pedestrian traffic for fear of further clashes with the Palestinians. The Temple Mount was reopened to non-Muslims in August 2003.


"However, radical Islamists adhere to medieval traditions and laws mandating the Jihad. According to the
Dictionary of Islam: conquered by jihad, subjugated people are given
three choices:

1) convert,
2) pay a head tax, or
3) die.

Thirteenth Century jurist Ibn Taymiya, often quoted by Osama bin Laden, wrote that spoils of war “received the name of fay since Allah had taken them away from the infidels in order to restore them to the Muslims.... [The] infidels forfeit their persons and their belongings which they do not use in Allah's service to the faithful believers who serve Allah and unto whom Allah restitutes what is theirs....”

This creed dictated that in conquered regions, ancient religious sites be confiscated and infidels banned from using them. Thus, the Dome of the Rock was constructed on the ruins of the Temple Mount in 691 AD., Al-Aqsa Mosque over the Basilica of St. Mary in 712, AD, and the Grand Mosque of Damascus, was built over the Cathedral of St. John the Baptist in 715 AD.

In India, the Vikramasli temple was razed to the ground in the 13
th Century, and its foundation- stones thrown into the Ganges. According to scholar K.S. Lal, thousands of Hindu temples were destroyed and their stones used to build mosques."


Economic and Political Weekly August 1-8, 1992

"for their own purposes, to settle their own scores. This is what seems to have happened on July 2 too.
The riot broke out in Dariapur area Or PreM Darwaza at about 4 pm. The procession of Lord Jagannath was being led by 15 elephants and it had 108 trucks and besides these there were 25 'akharas', and 25 bhajan 'mandlis'. Alongwith each truck the administration had posted one subinspector and four constables. Two airforce helicopters were also deployed to keep watch. Also on top of houses in Dariapur, Kalupur and Shahpur police were posted with telescopes to keep vigil.
But with all this elaborate 'bandobust' riots could not be prevented as some people were bent upon engineering communal violence. All the trucks in the procession were cleared by the police as well as by the Jagannath temple committee after proper screening. But it is alleged that the VHP leader L K Lodha mysteriously brought in several more lorries (some say 15 while others maintain that there were only two) and these lorries allegedly carried stones, lathis and other weapons which were freely used for rioting.
It is difficult to ascertain who threw stones first.
The BJP and VHP leaders allege that it is Muslims who threw stones and bombs on the procession. However, Ajaz Patel, general secretary, Gujarat Yuva Janta Dal, explains it somewhat differently. According to him when the procession entered the Prem Darwaza area of Dariapur at about 4 pm the BJP municipal corporator Bhaminiben Patel signalled one of the 'mahavats' by her hand to stop and asked what happened as did the BJP MLA of Kalupur Bhupendra Khatri. The mahavat said stones were being thrown on the procession from the Muslim area. Then Khatri is reported to have stopped the yatra and said'it would not proceed further.
According to Ajaz Patel not a single stone was thrown till then. It was only a ploy to stop the yatra. Now the Hindu youths in the yatra began to shout antiMuslim slogans: (I) Jay Ranchod, Miya chor (Long Live Ranchod, Muslims are thieves), (2) Jai Ranchod, Bandiya chor and (3) Jay Ranchod, Miya madar chod (Muslim is mother-fucker). The slogan shouting went on for quite sometime and according to Ajaz Patel, Muslims were provoked into throwing stones and petrol bombs. The BJP-VHP volunteers then STARTED throwing stones and bombs on Muslims and soon looting, burning and stabbing BEgan. There is yet another theory that Muslims did not throw stones on the procession but it all started from the procession itself. The stones and lathis were brought in by the unauthorised lorries which mysteriously sneaked into the yatra.
It is true that even L K Advani could not explain during his press con- ference in Ahmedabad after the riots how these unauthorised lorries came to be in the procession.
Whether the Muslims were provoked into throwing stones as a result of abusive slogan-shouting by the processionist or stones were thrown by the yatris 'themselves is not the most important aspect of the riot. It is only a sparkingoff point.

There is no doubt that the riots, as usual, were pre-planned. Rumours were systematically spread that the Muslims have stoned the procession and riots started simultaneously in many areas of Ahmedabad. According to Nachiketa Desai of The Tele~raph communal holocaust spread to Madhupur, Shah pur and even in the posh areas of Ashram Road. The police, it is alleged, sympathised with therioters. For about five hours on the night of July 2 the administration was nearly paralysed. During that time the rioters burnt about 200 shops belonging to the \Muslims. Imtiaz Sheikh, a shop-keeper from the Shahpur locality said that when the rioters were attacking us the police was with them. He also said that the police was firing from the roofs of buildings nearby. His shop was also looted. On Ashram Road a Bata shop belonging to a Hindu was burnt down because its manager was a Muslim. That night of the 300 shops looted and burnt, 297 belonged to Muslims. The three shops belonging to the Hindus were gutted only because they were adjacent to Muslim-owned shops.
The heavy police bandobast which was , meant to prevent outbreak of violence in fact turned against Muslims. On the very first day seven people were killed, three in police firing including one CRPF jawan and four in stabbings. It was rumoured that the CRPF jawan was killed in firing., by Muslims but later it was established that he was caught in the cross fire by the police and killed.

More violence erupted when the VHP gave a call for a Gujarat bandh on July 4 to protest against stoning of procession of Lord Jagannath. During the bandh violence broke out in other places like Sidhpur where two persons were killed and Surat wherein one person was stabbed to death. The toll in the Ahmedabad riots had mounted to 14 by Juiy 3. At least six more people were killed on July 3 and at least 27 were injured. Most of the deaths took place in police firing, stabbings and group violence. Four people were killed in police firing and one by stabbing with the' situation taking a serious t I: n despite the deployment of .heavy ;;oiice, CRPF. SRP and home guard -eomingents. Of the tOtal 135 injured, one person succumbed to injuries on the morning of July 3.
Many prominent Muslims including some advocates and others told us that on

Economic and Political Weekly August 1-8, 1992

July 2 itself many miscreants attacked Miyawada and a mosque as well as the 'dargah' of the famous Sufi saint Mehmudmiya Chishti from the terraces of high buildings and Jain Derasar of Chunara's Khancha by throwing burning rags and acid bulbs, bottles and stones.
The mosque and dargah were badly damaged. They were also shown to L K Advani when he visited Ahmedabad.
According to these Muslims rath yatris attacked Champa Masjid of Shah pur Chakla and looted two bakeries, one washing company, two shoe-shops, as well as five other shops and houses. They also burnt down a Maruti van, a scooter and 15 bicycles, all belonging to Muslims.
These Muslims also maintained that some, VHP volunteers, right in presence of their leaders, shouted highly provocative slogans like "Children of Tipu Sultan bring your Ruqayyas, our Ram and Laxman are coming to-them':' Not only that, a few VHP volunteers stripped themselve, before some Muslim women who were standing in balconies to see the rath yatra.
During the Gujarat bandh two persons in autorickshaws were burnt alive in Amraivadi. Both were Muslims. The chief minister Chimanbhai Patel also described this incident as most shameful. Also one . officer of the Indian Oil Corporation was 'dragged out of his house in Naranpura locality, killed him and threw his body from second floor. One more shocking incident took place in the Gqmtipur labour locality where a woman was hanged. Also. in Khanpur area four people, including a IO-year-old girl were killed in unprovoked police firing. Of those killed in police firing more than 70 per cent were members of the minority community. The , police as well as the local Gujarati press displayed a communal bias.

The BJP-VHP had planned to take out another rath yatra apparently because the earlier yatra could not complete its course.
But the pujaris ef Jagannath temple themselves opposed the idea and this plan did not materialise. One does not know what would have happened if the yatra had, been taken out once again. The Muslims decided not to take out the tazia procession on July 12. That too was a wise decision. It could have been disastrous in a tension-ridden situation.

Jinabhai Darji, a prominent Congress leader, Rauf ValiuIlah, Congress(l) general secretary and Vadilal Kamdar, after preliminary inquiries have also concluded that the police showed anti-Muslim bias. What a shame that religious festivals are turned into death dances by communalists for petty political gains. These should be, as they were before, occasions of HinduMuslim participation and celebration. But it seems to be a distant dream now.


Tika Lal Taploo

Name: Tika Lal Taploo

Fathers Name: Pandit Nand Lal Taphoo

Date of Birth: 6th Oct, 1927

Date of Assassination: 14th September,1989

Residence: Chinkral Mohalla, Habba Kadal, Srinagar

Survived by Wife (50), Sons (24, 21), Daughter (27)

Tika Lal Taploo was a lawyer by profession and had been in politics for long. He had fought electicons to the J&K Legislative Assembly a number of times but could not make it to the Assembly because of the jerrymandering of the Assembly segment he would usually tight elections from. He enjoyed immense popularity as a social and political activist. He was put to bullets by the armed killers of JKLF. His assassination came as a shock to large sections of Kashmiri population.

His funeral procession was stoned by the Muslim rebids and was attended among others by Kedar Nath Sahni and L. K. Advani as he was the Vice President of the J&K Unit of Bhartiya Janata Party. The Muslims downed the shutters of their shops as a mark of respect to the martyr, but they had to re-open their shops when issued commands not to mourn the death of a Kafir.

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